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close this bookDisaster and Development - Trainer's Guide - 1st edition (Disaster Management Training Programme, 57 p.)
close this folderPART ONE: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DISASTERS AND DEVELOPMENT (45 minutes)
View the document2. Part 1 learning objectives
View the document3. Introduction to disasters & development
View the document4. The relationship between disasters and development
View the document5. Definition of terms
View the document6. Disaster effects can vary by hazard
View the document7. Question
View the document8. Vulnerability can vary based on local economic conditions
View the document9. Question
View the document10. Summary

2. Part 1 learning objectives


Figure

Review these learning objectives to frame the following discussion.

This part of the module is designed to enhance your understanding of:

· The relationship between disasters and development
· Terms used to discuss these concepts
· How vulnerability to hazards can vary based on local and economic conditions
· How disaster effects can vary from one hazard to another

3. Introduction to disasters & development


Figure

Discuss the historical tendency to separate disasters and development. Ask the participants to comment why this orientation was prevalent and what, if any, problems have resulted.

· The cause and effect relationship between disasters and development has been ignored
· Disasters were seen in the context of emergency response
· Development programs were not assessed in the context of disasters
· Communities under disaster stress were seen as too turbulent for development initiatives

4. The relationship between disasters and development


Figure

Discuss this as the new paradigm. Work through the four quadrants of the figure providing your own examples or using the examples provided in the module. Ask participants for other examples from their own work.


Figure

5. Definition of terms


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Review the terms on the overhead and ask the participants if these definitions are familiar to them. Ask participants to clarify their own sense of what development is. Compare different definitions that me group identifies and ask how different groups within a vulnerable society might define development.


Warning! Cover this point quickly and then move on. The discussion of terms and definitions can often take too much valuable time in the presentation without leading to any consensus or particular point The idea is to simply acknowledge that terminology differs among users, and to agree on a definition to be used for this training.

· Disaster
· Preparedness
· Mitigation
· Structural adjustment


6. Disaster effects can vary by hazard


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Provide a general discussion of the results from different hazards. Use the table and the case studies to develop the discussion. Ask if any participants were present for these disasters and if so, ask for confirming evidence. Review conclusions from pages 6 & 7 of the module.

ECONOMIC LOSSES CAUSED BY RECENT NATURAL DISASTERS OF GEOLOGICAL ORIGIN IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (in millions of 1987 US dollars)

EARTHQUAKES

HURRICANES

FLOODS/DROUGHTS


Mexico City

Ecuador

David & Frederick

El NiB>


1985

1987

1979

1982-1983

TOTAL LOSSES

4337

1001

1057

3970

DIRECT LOSSES

3793

186

842

1311

Capital stock

3777

184

506

1060

Inventories

16

2

230

251

Production

0

0

106

0

INDIRECT LOSSES

544

815

215

2659

Production

154

704

185

1284

Services

390

111

30

1375

SECONDARY EFFECTS

4050

794

606

0

Public sector finances

1899

397

303

0

Increased expenditures

2025

55

264

0

Decrease in revenues

(126)

342

39

0

EXTERNAL SECTOR

8579

781

464

621

Reduction of exports

1650

635

167

547

Increase in imports

9075

155

296

74

Disaster-related income

(2146)

(9)

0

0

7. Question


Figure

Ask participants for their personal experience of how different types of hazards have had different effects in countries that they have worked in.

Q. What types of disasters are most likely to affect your country?


Figure

8. Vulnerability can vary based on local economic conditions


Figure

Review the different types of economies and provide examples of differential effects from the module and from your personal experience

· Newly industrializing economies
· Rural/agricultural economies
· Small island economies
· Highly stressed economies

9. Question


Figure

Seek participants' answers and record them on flip charts. Identify those sectors most vulnerable and compare them to the previous discussion.

Q. Which sectors of your country's economy are most likely to be affected by disasters?

10. Summary


Figure

Review the material that has been covered up to this point and reinforce the learning objectives.

· The relationship between disasters and development can be summed up with 4 concepts:

- development can increase vulnerability
- development can reduce vulnerability
- disasters can set back development
- disasters can provide development opportunities

· Disaster effects vary with the hazard type causing the disaster

· Vulnerability varies between different societies and economies

- newly industrializing economies
- rural/agricultural economies
- small island economies
- highly stressed economies

BREAK (10 minutes)
This is a good time to take a break.