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close this bookDisaster and Development - Trainer's Guide - 1st edition (Disaster Management Training Programme, 57 p.)
close this folderPARTS THREE AND FOUR: ASSESSING TRADE-OFFS IN INVESTING IN VULNERABILITY REDUCTION AND FORGING THE LINKS BETWEEN DISASTER AND DEVELOPMENT(45 minutes)
View the document25. Learning objectives
View the document26. Comparing development investments
View the document27. Definitions
View the document28. Estimating losses, costs and benefits
View the document29. Advantages of formal quantitative methods
View the document30. Summary
View the document31. Learning objectives
View the document32. Role of the UN and NGOs
View the document33. Collaborating constituencies
View the document34. Question
View the document35. Involving the affected community
View the document36. Question

25. Learning objectives


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Use this as an introduction to Part 3.

· Factors influencing decision makers' analysis of mitigation concepts
· Different types of costs, benefits and effects
· Models and tools useful in evaluating mitigation options

26. Comparing development investments


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Discuss why politicians are often reluctant to invest in preparedness/mitigation. Introduce the concepts of risk and uncertainty. Ask participants if they have had experience with politicians refusing to accept mitigation because of limited obvious near term benefits.


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27. Definitions


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Review these definitions and point out mat despite me factors discussed in me previous discussion, forward thinking leaders are beginning to see me benefits of preparedness/mitigation. This is partially due to seeing matters from me point of view of these concepts.

"OPPORTUNITY COSTS"



"The opportunity cost of a resource is the cost of its next best alternative"


"NET PRESENT VALUE"

"All things being equal, money available for productive investment now is worth more than money available in the future."


28. Estimating losses, costs and benefits


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Review each of these terms but avoid debating the concepts. Indicate that economists are making progress in providing quantifiable methods of comparing development alternatives. Include a discussion of costs and benefits indicating that costs are easiest to quantify but that benefits are like estimating losses. Choose examples from the text, case studies or refer back to OH 6 for further examples.

· Direct monetary effects
· Indirect monetary effects
· Direct non-monetary effects
· Indirect non-monetary effects
· Loss of non-renewable natural resources


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29. Advantages of formal quantitative methods


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Review the overhead. Ask participants if they have had experience with formal cost/benefit analysis and how they have found it useful.

· Provides a standard to compare program options
· Facilitates identifying both anticipated and unanticipated options
· Identifies alternative ways to accomplish the same objective

30. Summary


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Recall learning objectives and review the material that was just covered in this session.

· Factors influencing decision makers analysis of mitigation concepts
· Different types of costs, benefits and effects
· Models and tools useful in evaluating mitigation options

31. Learning objectives


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Review these learning objectives for the first section of the course.

· How current and potential role for United Nations agency officials and NGOs help countries make the disaster/development connection.

· Why the affected communities need to be involved in designing and implementing programs.

32. Role of the UN and NGOs


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Review why the UN is promoting the concepts discussed in this module. Ask participants to identify NGOs that are interested in these concepts also.

· Increasing knowledge and awareness
· Promoting the use of outside and non-traditional resources
· Setting good examples

33. Collaborating constituencies


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Discuss why these groups should have an interest in promoting preparedness/mitigation. Ask participants to identify other constituencies in countries they have worked in. Solicit ideas about strategies mat have been useful in involving these groups in developing overall country-wide disaster plans.

· Banking
· Insurance
· Private industry
· Economic policy groups
· Local safety councils
· Universities

34. Question


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Ask the group to brainstorm ideas that have worked in the past and other ideas worth trying. Record these suggestions on the flip chart. Ask the group to select the five best ideas from the list generated.

Q. What are some ways that UN agency officials and NGOs can help a country's leaders promote development in the context of disaster preparedness, mitigation and recovery?

35. Involving the affected community


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Review the benefits of involving local people and organizations in planning and implementation efforts. Discuss why these groups are often ignored in the planning process and why ignoring them is not good policy. Stress the importance of community development in communities at risk prior to an actual disaster.

· Provides good ideas about local felt needs
· Builds support for implementation
· Builds self-esteem and community leaders

36. Question


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Ask participants to identify from their experience successful attempts to involve potential disaster victims. Focus the discussion on what has worked and why the participants felt the program was successful.

Q. Provide an example of a successful attempt to involve potential disaster victims in designing and implementing a prevention or mitigation program.