Cover Image
close this bookCerebrospinal Meningitis Epidemics and Surveillance Systems in the Sudan, Ethiopia and Chad (Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, 1990, 40 p.)
close this folderII. COUNTRY REPORTS
close this folderA. REPUBLIC OF THE SUDAN
close this folder2. Referral and Surveillance Health Systems
View the document2.1. Referral System
View the document2.2. Surveillance System

2.2. Surveillance System

Meningitis is a notifiable disease in the Sudan. The reports are issued by the different health units, from the lower (primary health care unit) level to the Provincial General Health Directorate, passing through the different levels of the referral system. The data are then centralized at the Regional level and in the Central Epidemiology unit.

The NGOs do not report on a routine basis to the MOH, neither the data collected in the Refugee camps. This system includes also the report of Yellow Fever and Cholera cases.

a. Structures

- Ministry of Health and Division of Epidemiology:

The Division of Preventive Medicine and nine other divisions are under the authority of the first undersecretary (see organigramme in annex 2). The Preventive Medicine department is composed of 5 different units: the Central Epidemiology Unit, the Sanitation & Environment Unit, Health Education Unit, Malaria Control Programme Unit and Trachoma Unit. The Central Epidemiology Unit is responsible for specific disease surveillance and control, including Meningitis, Yellow Fever and Cholera. It is also the focal point for emergencies.

b. System:

- Frequency:

The notifiable diseases are reported weekly to the higher level in the referral system and to the Epidemiology Unit.

- Regularity and communication means and delays:

The epidemiology unit gets 50 % of the reports.

The delays are variable according to the origin of the report and it can take several months before a report reaches the central level.

The means of communication are poor. The MOH does not have radio or telephone communications with all the provinces. At the lower level the reporting system relies on telegrams, when they exist, and most of the time on the availability of messagers.

There is no specific reporting form.

- Type of information:

- on the cases and deaths: age, sex, origin, vaccination antecedent and outcome.
- on the stocks: not on routine basis
- on the number of immunization performed

- Compilation and Feed-back information:

The data are compiled by hand.

The central epidemiology unit feeds back the Regional and Provincial Directorates.

- Communication to other countries:

There is not any formal communication system with neighbouring countries.