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close this bookCerebrospinal Meningitis Epidemics and Surveillance Systems in the Sudan, Ethiopia and Chad (Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, 1990, 40 p.)
close this folderII. COUNTRY REPORTS
close this folderA. REPUBLIC OF THE SUDAN
View the document1. Background
Open this folder and view contents2. Referral and Surveillance Health Systems
View the document3. Meningitis Epidemics Control Plan
View the document4. 1988 Cerebrospinal Meningococcal Meningitis Epidemic in Khartoum
Open this folder and view contents5. Comments
View the document6. Data Collection

3. Meningitis Epidemics Control Plan

During and after the 1988-1989 CSM epidemics the Epidemiology Unit and MOH have developed specific procedures for meningitis outbreak control. Many of the following measures were implemented during the occurrence of this last epidemic.

- Surveillance:

In the case of an epidemic, daily reports are compiled in the Epidemiology Unit. Data are collected daily by radio, telephone or telegram when possible.

Information on stocks of vaccines and drugs is collected before the high risk season.

- Warning messages:

At the beginning of the high risk period, a warning message is sent to each region reminding them of the risk of encountering cases and case definition. Reception of warning messages is not always certain. One can assume that these messages normally reach the regional levels and sometimes reach the provincial level. The poor communication network does not permit these messages to reach the lower levels.

- Serogroup and Sensitivity monitoring:

At the beginning of the high risk season, samples are taken from different regions and are analysed in the national reference laboratory in Khartoum (National Public Health Laboratory).

- Criteria for an epidemic:

There are not any formal criteria or thresholds which define an epidemic.

- Crisis Committee:

In case of epidemic, a crisis committee meets in the epidemiology unit. This committee meets every day and is responsible for issuing the general policy of control of the epidemic, the assessment of the needs, the mobilisation of the resources, and the coordination of the management of the epidemic.

Crisis committees exist also at the regional level.

- Diagnosis & Treatment protocols:

The diagnosis of CSM cases is mainly based on clinical symptoms. The Epidemiology Unit developed in 1989 a guideline for the treatment of meningitis. This guideline is distributed in case of an epidemic. The recommendations of the MOH are:

* Treatment of cases:

1. Crystalline Penicilline


2. Chloramphenicol


3. Ampicilline


4. Tetracycline


5. Erythromycine



* Prophylaxis of close contacts:

Ampicilline if not vaccinated

- Stocks:

The stocks of vaccines are renewed at the beginning of the high risk season.

On September 1, 1990 there were 125000 doses of CSM vaccines in the Central Medical store.