Cover Image
close this bookCerebrospinal Meningitis Epidemics and Surveillance Systems in the Sudan, Ethiopia and Chad (Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, 1990, 40 p.)
close this folderII. COUNTRY REPORTS
close this folderC. Republic of Chad
View the document1. Background
Open this folder and view contents2. Referral and Epidemiological Surveillance Systems
View the document3. Emergency Mechanisms in Chad
View the document4. Meningitis Epidemic Plan
View the document5. 1988 Meningitis Epidemic in N'Djamena
Open this folder and view contents6. Comments
View the document7. Data Collected

4. Meningitis Epidemic Plan

There is no specific surveillance system and there was not any plan before the 1988 epidemic. There is not any defined structure and the response depends much on individuals, as the description of the 1988 CSM will show.

Several projects have been designed in the course of last epidemic and have different elements in the existing structure.

- Communication - Surveillance

In the monthly report, cases of CSM in children under five years old are not notified.

Knowing that this age group represents 16,4 % of the total population and that, attack rates amongst children are important, there is a significant underreporting of the cases. Moreover a monthly reporting system is not effective for early detection. The BSPE gets the information first and if something alarming appears, it will inform the division of Epidemiology.

In the nine subsahelian prefectures, there is a relatively good communication network, while in the rest of the country, communications are very poor.

In case of an epidemic in one of the prefectures equipped with a radio, two radio connections a day allow the follow-up of the situation.

- Criteria for epidemic:

The criteria recommended in the MOH is 20 cases/100000 per week or a twofold increase of the number of cases in one week.

- Guidelines:

A guideline has been designed during last epidemic.

* Diagnosis:

- clinical case definition


- confirmation by Lumbar Puncture (to be sent at the Chef de Prcture)


- bacteriologic confirmation, sensitivity monitoring and serotype identification at the central level

* Treatment:

- Oily Chloramphenicol IM

* Vaccination:

- high risk groups must be decided by the central level

Transportation of the samples from the peripheral level to the central or middle level are not defined.

- Stocks in vaccines and drugs:

The MOH does not have any specific emergency stock of vaccines and drugs. There is a system for drug management in the nine prefectures of the FED project only.

National Stocks On September 20, 1990:

- Antimeningococcal Vaccines:

27100 doses.

- Oily Chloramphenicol:

2500 vials.