|Coordinating Among International Organizations in Complex Emergencies (Draft 1st Edition) (Complex Emergency Training Initiative - Disaster Management Training Programme, 77 p.)|
|Part 2 - Roles, responsibilities and resources|
|Roles and resources of organizations|
Mandate (responsibilities): To operate as a neutral, impartial and independent organization in situations of armed conflict. The international community has mandated the ICRC to help victims of war and internal violence and to promote compliance with international humanitarian law.
Scope of operations: The ICRC's activities are aimed at protecting and assisting the victims of armed conflict and internal violence so as to preserve their physical integrity and their dignity and to enable them to regain their autonomy as quickly as possible. ICRC activities include protection of the civilian population, food and non-food relief operations, health activities such as war surgery, water and sanitation programs, restoration of family links, visits to prisoners and dissemination of knowledge of international humanitarian law.
Role in complex emergencies: To provide protection and assistance to victims of armed conflict. The ICRC reminds parties to conflict of their obligation under international humanitarian law to respect and protect the civilian population. By applying the principles of independence and impartiality, the ICRC is able to act as a neutral intermediary between the parties to armed conflict, with a view to finding solutions for matters of humanitarian concern.
General resources: The ICRC relies for its financing on voluntary contributions from governments, supranational organizations such as the European Union, public sources, the National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and also private sources. Its 1996 budget was 684 million Swiss Francs.
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC)
Mandate (responsibilities): IFRC acts through and with National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies to coordinate emergency response and development activities. In addition, it represents National Societies on the international level. The IFRC cooperates with the International Committee of the Red Cross within the framework of the Statutes of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.
Scope of operations: As IFRC is primarily driven by requests from its member societies for assistance with humanitarian operations in their countries, it can, in theory, operate in any one of the countries where it has members. In practice the bulk of its operations in the past few years has been in Africa and Europe, but with substantial further operations in Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and the Americas.
Its mandate is inclusive, thus all "naturally" triggered disasters, floods, drought, etc. fall within the scope of its operations in addition to disasters of a technological nature (e.g. Chernobyl and major transport accidents) as well as both chronic and acute pathogen related emergencies (e.g. the Ebola outbreaks in Africa and the re-emergence of Diphtheria in Europe). IFRC also assists many refugees and internally displaced persons fleeing war and plays a considerable post-conflict role in assisting with the rebuilding of war-torn societies.
Role in complex emergencies: Operations coordinated by IFRC include provision of shelter, food, water, health services and other forms of assistance to beneficiaries outside areas where armed conflict is in progress. Delivery of assistance is arranged through the National Red Cross or Red Crescent Society of the affected country, or through Delegations of the IFRC, in agreement with the National Society. The IFRC works closely with other agencies, such as those of the UN system and others, while maintaining its operational, financial and political independence.
General resources: The IFRC, comprising 170 National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, has at its disposal considerable aggregate resources. With a combined turnover of some 24 billion Swiss Francs, 122 million volunteers and 284,000 staff, the organization has global breadth combined with the depth of local presence which enables it to act in both emergencies and in day-to-day care on a significant scale.
On the international level, the Secretariat of the IFRC comprises some 675 international staff, 275 based in Geneva and 400 in the field, where they also have the support of some 5,500 locally recruited staff. The Secretariat, in turn, draws upon the resources of National Societies, as donors and as partners, in operations and programs with a combined annual turnover of some 400 million Swiss Francs.
Special resources for emergencies: Emergency response activities focus on the capacity of the National Society of the affected country. Hence, institutional development and capacity building programs with National Societies are a central component of the resources available for emergencies.
The activities in emergency response center on the "Disaster Response and Operations Co-ordination Division (DROC)" of the Secretariat, and the Delegations managed by this unit. DROC consists of five regional operational departments and a set of technical support units, including Relief Health, Field Personnel, Logistics, Appeals and Reports, and Operations Support Service.
Operations Support Service develops and maintains a system of "Emergency Response Units (ERU)" which are structured combinations of equipment, trained personnel, procedures and management structures for a variety of purposes. These can be mobilized from National Societies and deployed at short notice. Currently available ERUs include Airport Logistics, Basic Health Care, Information, Mass Sanitation, Mass Water, Referral Hospital, Specialized Water and Telecommunication.
International Organization for Migration (IOM)
Mandate (responsibilities): To ensure, throughout the world, the orderly migration of persons who are in need of international migration assistance. IOM is committed to the principle that humane and orderly migration benefits both migrants and society. It acts with its partners in the international community to: assist in meeting the operational challenges of migration; advance understanding of migration issues; encourage social and economic development through migration; and work toward effective respect of human dignity and the well-being of migrants. In the context of its Constitution, individuals of concern to IOM include economic migrants, displaced persons, refugees, nationals returning to their home country, and other individuals in need of international migration assistance.
Scope of operations: Historically, IOM has emphasized assistance to migrants resettling permanently in another country. In recent years, however, the Organization's activities and functions have changed in order to meet the new and evolving needs and challenges faced by the international community, and in particular, in relation to the link between migration and development. Accordingly, IOM's programs include: return and reintegration of qualified nationals to participate in the reconstruction and development of their native countries, and the return of irregular migrants such as rejected asylum-seekers and trafficked migrants.
The Organization also undertakes large programs to assist internally displaced persons as well as demobilized combatants whose transport home and reintegration are essential to the transition from conflict to a peaceful civil society. While involved in helping the resettlement or return of victims of most major forced population movements over the past four and a half decades, IOM increasingly focuses on the migration aspects of emergencies. Generally, IOM engagement in such situations comprises registration and documentation, emergency transportation (by land, sea or air), escorting, temporary shelter provision and camp management. In North Iraq, IOM worked closely with the Allied Forces to return displaced Kurds in Turkey and Iran to their home villages.
Role in complex emergencies: The migration assistance IOM provides during complex emergencies can cover a range of interrelated activities, such as arranging transport, evacuations (by land, air or sea) and returns; and providing health care as well as temporary shelter and other material relief. IOM also provides rapid analysis of migratory flows and early warning, develops national population information systems, organizes census taking, and provides technical cooperation and support to governments.
In post-emergency situations, IOM may provide assistance in the following areas: return and reintegration of internally displaced persons; civilian reintegration of demobilized combatants; return of qualified nationals; repatriation of refugees in cooperation with UNHCR; tracing and family reunification in cooperation with ICRC; capacity building in migration related areas; migration, information and job referral services; micro projects to facilitate reintegration of returnees; and local communal governance to alleviate migratory pressures.
General resources: IOM's administrative budget is funded by assessed contributions from all member states according to an agreed percentage scale. Its operational budget is wholly funded by voluntary contributions from governments, multi-lateral and private sources. IOM is headquartered in Geneva and has some 1,200 staff working in over 77 regional and country offices.
Special resources for emergencies: IOM maintains a limited emergency revolving fund for emergency assessment use and for initial start-up of emergency operations prior to actual receipt of external operational funding. In its cooperation with the United Nations, IOM participates in coordinated international humanitarian response and the consolidated inter-agency appeals issued by the UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs.
IOM maintains a roster of staff who can be called upon for emergency deployment on short notice. In addition, IOM has agreements with agencies providing emergency personnel should IOM's internal roster not be sufficient. An emergency stockpile of office equipment, telecommunications and emergency field kits are also maintained.