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close this bookEmergency Management (United Nations Children's Fund, 390 p.)
close this folderWorkshop Session
View the documentSession 0: Opening Session
View the documentSession 1: Course Introduction*
View the documentSession 2: Perceptions of Emergencies
View the documentSession 3: Simulation*
View the documentSession 4: Principles of Emergency Management
View the documentSession 5: Early Warning & Pre-Disaster Planning
View the documentSession 6: Assessment
View the documentSession 7: Programme Planning
View the documentSession 8: Water & Sanitation
View the documentSession 9: Health
View the documentSession 10: Food and Nutrition
View the documentSession 11: Media Relations
View the documentSession 12: Supply and Logistics
View the documentSession 13: Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances
View the documentSession 14: International Relief System
View the documentSession 15: Funding
View the documentSession 16: Key Operating Procedures
View the documentSession 17: Applications of Emergency Manual and Handbook
View the documentSession 18: Training of Trainers

Session 13: Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances

Learning Objectives

1. Be able to identify the "target groups" referred to in general and in emergencies.

2. Know the policy/mandate regarding CEDC and its relative priority in UNICEF.

3. Be able to programme meaningful action for CEDC in a given emergency situation.

4. Be able to assess feasibility and political implications of both advocacy and action oriented interventions for UNICEF, other agencies and the government.

Learning Points

1. Categories of children which are covered in overall policy review.

2. Those most frequently encountered in emergencies, e.g.:

- children in armed conflict
- unaccompanied
- refugees
- displaced

3. Which emergency type is associated with what target groups?

4. What are types of needs of each group, what action is recommended and what should be UNICEF's role in assessing and/or meeting them?

5. Which other organizations are involved in action for CEDC in emergencies. How do we co-operate.

6. Particular attention should be given to the case of children in armed conflict situations. These pose a whole series of programmatic considerations which are complicated by security issues. Interventions can range from advocacy to service delivery but bear implications which are often very political, both domestically and with donors.

7. What is bein done in research/programmatically to find means of addressing and taking action to meet psycho-social needs of refugee and displaced children.

8. UNICEF's mandate for operating in zones of peace is not documented in black or white but gains its acceptance based on previous precedence. Furthermore, the respect of state sovereignty, the preservation of diplomatic immunity must be balanced with survival needs of children and all of the above must be treated delicately in terms of public information with the media. Examine the costs and benefits of zone of peace operations. How can one minimize risks. List some experiences.

9. Can the Convention on Child Rights be used in field office operations as an advocacy tool. What other legal instruments exist of which UNICEF should be aware.

10. How is HQ structured to support field based CEDC initiatives. How does the field access HQ support.

11. What else could be done to support the field.


POSSIBLE LEARNING METHODS

- Presentation
- Group work

1. For children in armed conflict, displaced, unaccompanied, refugee children, have one group address each and answer the following:

- needs assessment framework
- critique prescribed responses/suggest others
- how to overcome risks and obstacles encountered in emergency situations

2. Show video "Children of Terror" and discuss UNICEF's potential for intervention on issues tackled by the video.

REQUIRED READING

- UNICEF, "Assisting in Emergencies", Chapter 13 (pp 106-112), Annex 27-29
- UNICEF, "Children in Armed Conflict Situations", preparedness and actions, 1986 (Cairo papers) (1)
- UNICEF, CF/PD/PRO-1986-004, "Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances"

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

- UNICEF. Children on the Front Line, 1987
- UNICEF, E/ICEF/1986/L.3, Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances Policy Review, 1986
- UNICEF. E/ICEF/1986/L.6, Overview: Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances, 1986

SPEAKERS' Preparation Aids

- "Children of Terror" video, produced by BBC on child soldiers in Uganda
- Everett Ressler, "Unaccompanied Children in Emergencies"

***

Required Reading (1)
“Cairo papers”

Discussion Papers For MENA Regional Staff Meeting

UNICEF POLICY & PRACTICE
For
CHILDREN IN ARMED CONFLICT SITUATIONS

Preparedness Activities, Actions During Conflict & Staff Security

Prepared by M. Hart, at the request of E. Lannert, with input from (a)
J.G. Andersson - core papers,
(b) selected field offices- telex views and (c) UNICEF Cairo consultation

July, 1986

Preparedness Activities
Action During Conflict

Staff Security
Telexed Views

***

Children in Armed Conflicts

Possible Preparedness Activities for UNICEF(1)

(1) This paper attempts to summarize (i) extracts of information, on preparedness contained in the implementation strategy paper on children in conflict situations, (ii) Gullmar Andersson's paper on early warning, (iii) telexed views on this paper obtained from selected field offices as well as (iv) experiences from Cairo Office and the writer & Staff of emergency Unit H.Q. & Geneva.

It is being suggested that preparedness activities in respect of conflict situations can be grouped into three broad categories:

(1) Information gathering for action
(2) Building alliances
(3) UNICEF Office Preparedness.

I) INFORMATION GATHERING FOR ACTION:

i) Data Gathering on Vulnerable Groups:

At country level, efforts to explore the potential areas for action could include:

- initiating studies to identify most vulnerable groups, including for example :

- Children of internally & externally displaced,

- unaccompanied children, orphans or abandoned.

- severely malnourished children.

- war widows/single parents,

- traumatized children.

- delinquent: youths.

- having identified, it is important to try and obtain as much detail on numbers, location and nature of existing or potential vulnerable groups.

- identifying previous patterns of movements by vulnerable groups to facilitate planning a response if necessary to new displacement due to a crisis.

The process of data collection in this regard can also be achieved through forming consultative groups consisting of concerned officials, NGOs and academic consultants.

Having gathered information of this nature, it is important that it be disseminated in a way which creates awareness and sensitizes those who would be possible actors or participants in conflict situations. These may include governments, military, police, press and communities through selective use of media available in country & globally.

Sharing information both regionally and globally also has a valuable role to play in the broader goal of awareness raising and sensitizing decision makers to the effects of conflict on children.

example:

Networking for Children in Conflict:

Pan African Network:

In an effort to explore and assess the dimensions and nature of problems facing children in conflict situations. UNICEF Regional Office in Nairobi has identified a networking agency representing most countries in conflict situations. With UNICEF support, this agency will host a workshop for member countries whose objectives will be:

- To develop jointly strategies for intervening in conflict situations with other countries to defend the rights of children.

- To share material and ideas on improving methods for advocacy and consciousness raising.

- To facilitate the sharing documentation of data and information on the subject.

ii) Inventory of Resources: Who can do What?:

To create a basis for action planning it is essential, in addition to highlighting magnitude of problem areas, to identify the resources, organizational, infrastructural and human, which could be mobilized to take action either to prevent or assist in conflict situations.

This can be achieved by systematically surveying problem areas to become aware of groups who are already taking action and through whom more details of the situation could be made available.

Further to this, it is useful to obtain an overview of logistic, organizational and administrative structures, in place in normal times which could be mobilized in a conflict.

example:

South Africa:

In view of constraints for providing direct assistance to victims of civil strife in South Africa, two proposals are now under consideration.

One involves the identification of an NGO working in the area and providing financial support through the World Council of Churches who are assisting refugees in Crossroads with basic needs including food, shelter and medical supplies.

A second proposal has been received from a private consulting firm to prepare an operations profile for the most affected areas in the country. It is soliciting support from a consortium of humanitarian agencies both NGO and UN. This is designed to provide an information base on geographic logistics, infrastructure, and organizations which would be essential to planning operations.

(iii) Early Warning:

A third, and perhaps more difficult type of information to capture is that which serves as indicator of a turning point or significant deterioration in a volatile conflict situations which can develop over long periods and then flare up unexpectedly. Objective data and subjective perceptions are suggested : as indicators and to be monitored by UNICEF.

a) Mass Media:

Follow, to the extent possible, through mass media, political developments both within the country as well as in the region.

b) Production Changes:

If a country prepares for war, the industrial production pattern changes to put the country on "warfooting". One indicator can be that certain items disappear from the market without any reason.

c) UNICEF Office:

Your own office is often a good source of information as our local staff are well informed through their "knowledge network" of possible developments within the country. In some cases it may be useful to capture this type of information in daily briefing sessions.

d) Normal Government and Other Counterparts:

Can be most accurate and good source of information if an excellent relationship exists of mutual trust.

e) "Unusual Events":

Always keep an eye on "unusual events". This could be visible unrest in the population, violent strikes, demonstrations, sudden raise in crime rates and unusual high activity of armed forces.

f) Rumours:

The general rule is : "Don't listen to or spread rumours". That is a good rule, however, it can be slightly modified to "listen to rumours, carefully evaluate what you have hard - but don't spread it further". There might be some truth in what you hear and that should be neglected. Try then to verify through other sources.

g) Embassies:

Embassies are very useful especially in a developing situation for fundraising, assistance with evacuations, etc. and should always be an important contact point. Some Embassies can, however, be a bit "tricky" in obtaining information from, prior to changing situations.

(iv) UNICEF References:

Awareness of and access to existing references concerning UNICEF's resources and capacities which can be mobilized in situations of crises is extremely important. These include:

a) Five basic reference texts, which should be available in your office and serve as guides to policy and procedures as well as practical guidelines on implementation:

- the resource handbook for UNICEF Field Staff "Assisting in Emergencies ".
- Book E of the Field manual on emergency policy "Procedures".
- UNHCR handbook for emergencies.
- ICRC guide for delegates.
- Guide for unaccompanied children in emergencies.

b) EMOPs in NY maintains a roster of UNICEF Staff (present & previous), as well as consultants with experience in emergency situations. This can be helpful for rapid identification of staff support or technical assistance, as necessary.

c) Details on the contents of UNIPAC emergency stockpile can be obtained from the UNIPAC catalogue. The items are available on demand by air from Copenhagen subject to appropriation of funds from regular programmes, supplementary contributions or the ERF.

d) Information on staff training programmes both in UNICEF and/by other organizations is available from EMOPS in NY or GVA. These courses can facilitate upgrading of skills in emergency management techniques including contingency planning, needs assesment, sectoral interventions and negotiating skills.

II) BUILDING ALLIANCES:

Having identified key actors, decision makers, academics and concerned groups as sources of information, it is essential to build and maintain rapport with them.

This can be done both formally and informally.

On a formal basis, it has proven effective to host or facilitate the establishing of consultative groups who hold regular meetings or workshops where interested parties come together to exchange views and information on the problems in general and/or specific aspects of vulnerable groups and high risk issues. It is hoped that such groups could be mobilized for action in times of crisis. These groups can serve as a forum for advocacy on needs of CEDC as well as child's rights and possibly facilitate promotion of same.

example:

UNICEF in Egypt has taken concrete initiatives in this regard. Setting in motion a consultative process by organizing a group of experts & officials dealing initially with child labour, which will meet on a continuing basis to address other issues relating to children in difficult circumstances. The process is intended to help build alliances, monitor ongoing critical problems and extend the existing network of alliances.

Informally, contacts can be made with concerned organizations and individuals on subjects relating to regular programmes which may serve as counterparts or allies in conflict situation. These are also possible channels for advocacy and promotion on child's rights, adjustment with a human face and children in especially difficult circumstances (CEDC).

example:

UNICEF Egypt has also undertaken to establish and maintain such contacts:

a) University Faculties of Law. Ongoing programmes which include training police officers in international humanitarian law; legal literacy for public.

b) ICRC. ICRC has ongoing dialogue with Justice Department of Armed Forces for building contnt of military education in international humanitarian law.

c) Ford Foundation. Has programme for strengthening human rights concerns in university law faculties, centre for International Legal and Economic Studies at Zagazig University, Union of Arab Lawyers, and Egyptian Police Academy. Another component of the programme aims at providing legal aid to families and individuals who cannot afford it.

d) Press. A leading columnist for Al-Ahram newspaper is supporting public awareness building on impact of war on children.

e) Others. United Nations Truce Supervision Organisation (for logistic and communication facilities); UNHCR; Embassies; Rod Crescent Society.

III) UNICEF OFFICE PREPAREDNESS CHECKLIST:

Offices in most vulnerable situations can initiate preparedness measures in advance to allow them more freedom to respond to affected populations in the event of crisis.

Staff:

- Photocopies of passports/LPs/IDs.

- Updated lists of staff dependents, consultants and visitors with home address and telephone numbers.

- Walkie-talkies, chargers and base stations as necessary.

- ensure that more than one or two people are familiar with operating the telex - have instructions and key numbers prepared and kept in a safe place.

Office:

- Shatter proof film for windows.
- Standby generators for telex, lights and office equipment.
- Gas lamps and camp stoves.
- Medical kits.
- Spare keys with essential staff.
- Emergency stocks of canned food and bottled water and can openers.

Vehicles:

- First Aid kits.
- Fuel, oil spare parts, tire reserves.
- Have unmarked and/or marked vehicles as required.
- Have additional UN Flags which be attached to vehicles on discretionary basis.

Logistic/Security:

- Contacts with military and security police.
- Contacts with new established Embassies have international radio links.
- Contacts with other international agencies.
- Iventory of transportation options for evacuation.
- Contacts with UN Forces present in country or region.

Finance:

- Maintain meaningful cash reserves in dollars and in local currencies in case banks close.

ON

EARLY WARNING” IN ARMED CONFLICT SITUATIONS

By J. Gullmar Andersson
***

It is very difficult to come to general conclusions on this subject as armed conflicts develop in so many different ways. In some war situations, escalation may develop hour by hour or an attack may come as a complete surprise.

Civil wars can, on the other hand take years to erupt although the under laying fundamental issues, that may create a civil war, have been evident for a long time.

The "early warning" in war situations must use other indicators than in "normal" disaster situations. The most important is to keep oneself as well informed as possible. A few suggestions:

a. Mass Media

Follow, to the extend possible, through mass media, political developments both within the country as well as in the region.

b. UNICEF Office

Your own office is often a good source of information as our local staff are well informed through their "know-ledge network" of possible developments within the country

c. Normal Government and Other Counterparts

Can be most accurate and good source of information if an excellent relationship exists of mutual trust.

d. Production Changes

If a country prepares for war, the industrial production pattern changes to put the country on "warfooting" . One indicator can be that certain items disappear from the market without any reason.

e. "Unusual Events"

Always keep an eye on "unusual events". This could be visible unrest in the population, violent strikes, demonstrations, sudden raise in crime rates and unusual high activity of armed forces.

f. Rumours

The general rule is: "Don't listen to or spread rumours". That is a good rule, however, it can be slightly modified to "listen to rumours, carefully evaluate what you have heard - but don't spread it further". There might be some truth in what you hear and that should not be neglected. Try then to verify through other sources.

g. Embassies

Embassies are very useful especially in a developing situation for fundraising, assistance with evacuations, etc. and should always be an important contact point. Some embassies can, however, be a bit "tricky" in obtaining information from, prior to changing situations.

Last but not least: if UNICEF is known in the country to be an efficient and reliable organization, you have solved many of the problems in "early warning" as many mill be more inclined to pass on information to you.

Children in Armed Conflict
UNICEF Action for Children During Conflict Situations

In an effort to build practical field experiences into global implementation guidelines concerning UNICEF interventions for children in conflict situations, three papers are attached for consideration and discussion,

The first is an extract from a draft HQ implementation strategy paper for children in especially difficult circumstances addressing the problem of conflict situations.

The second is a paper produced by Gullmar Andersson highlighting opportunities and constraints for action in conflict situations and an addendum on advocacy from his own experiences in Lebanon, Bangladesh and Biafra.

The third is a series of highlights sent by telex to the writer from other country offices commenting on Andersson's paper from their own experiences in : El Salvador. Yemen. Uganda, Sudan, Lebanon and Phillippines.

What is noteworthy from Andersson's paper, is where experience in-country reinforces certain aspects of the strategy paper but suggests caution in others. In some cases, Andersson adds important points not mentioned in the strategy paper.

Because of complexity and diversity in situations experienced in other countries no attempt was made to relate cabled comments to the strategy paper, nevertheless highlights on implementation of actions have been extracted and are considered extremely valuable.

Comparison of Andersson's Paper with Strategy Paper

Elements Where Views are Similar:

Extension of basic services to affected populations is a very effective and needed intervention and provides a natural linkage between relief, rehabilitation and development.

Working closely with UN especially UNHCR and the UN forces UNIFIL was particularly beneficial.

Repair of broken water mains flooding a civilian shelter on the front line was an effective entry point for arranging a cease fire.

Alliance building was extremely important not only with officials on both sides but also with religious leaders, press and unofficial but powerful political groups.

If supporting local peace initiatives, make certain they have sufficient political backing.

Elements where specific country situation suggests caution in implementing strategy:

1-Andersson:

- Military and paramilitary forces can be valuable allies when channeling relief assistance particularly in critical conflict situations for logistics and communications e.g. UN forces in Lebanon, military in El Salvador.

Strategy:

- Channel relief supplies thru non military & non paramilitary structures as far as possible.

2-Andersson:

Being more operational as an agency and not depending on government & NGO counterparts may be a necessity. This is especially relevant in relief operations where financing port handling, clearing inland transport distribution and storage.

Strategy:

- Collaborate closely with other mandated agencies in the field, especially UNHCR, ICRC and other NGO and religious groups and use their collective mandates and moral force to seek and use opportunities to reach children caught on different sides of conflict.

3-Andersson:

Overt advocacy for Human Rights and Child Rights in peak times of conflict may not be productive and could alienate UNICEF from important allies. Informal approach on neutral humanitarian grounds on face to face basis works better.

Strategy:

- International Law. Development and compliance:(e) supporting the development of an efficient and innovative implementation machinery for reinforcing the pro tact ion that international conventions provide to children

4-Andersson:

- Targeting assistance at specific vulnerable groups as not undertaken since the priority needs are affecting entire families and targeting assistance to unique segments might result in splitting families.

Strategy:

Indicative list of groups and risk should he-assessed in situational analysis and priority for action based on intensity of need, numbers affected and opportunities for programmes and strategies and be responsive to local need and priorities.

5-Andersson:

- Safe havens - such as hospitals and schools are not immune to attack during fighting, in fact they were frequently targeted during attacks in Lebanon.

Strategy:

Set up UNHCR/UNICEF/ICRC regional task forces to look into opportunities for intervening on behalf of child victims of armed conflict and promoting the concept of children as zones of peace.

6-Andersson:

- Programmes for child soldiers which involve creating special schools may risk to encourage and facilitate recruitment rather than discourage it.

Strategy:

Actions for Groups at Risk. Child Soldiers, POW's: Promote rehabilitation and special education, recreation and social services.

7-Andersson:

- Direct/open approach in negotiating zone of peace operations can be risky - clearances from both sides are more likely to be obtained informally.

Strategy:

Seek support and endorsement of government and other parties to conflict in order to facilitate access to all children.

New Ideas from Andersson not mentioned in Strategy Paper:

i. Conditions in civil war differ substantially from traditional cross-border conflicts. Delicate and selective alliance building is critical to assure successful implementation. Neutrality is a key and NGO collaboration can often be negative where clearly defined sympathies are evident.

ii. Assisting communities to absorb temporarily displaced groups outside conflict zone may be more effective-than setting up independent centres for affected families only.

iii. Assistance in rehabilitation of basic services in prolonged war situations is a meaningful input in creating an atmosphere of normalization at the community level.

iv. Rehabilitation of schools and support to vocational training serves also to reduce possibilities and pressures leading to child soldiers.

v. Very different programming is implied for prolonged conflict situations as opposed to short-lived flare-ups.

vi. Contacts by the Executive Director to UNICEF committee of opposing country paralleled by direct contact with military in country facilitated in-country operations.

***

Speaker’s Aid

LECTURE:

UNACCOMPANIED
CHILDREN
in
EMERGENCIES

E. RESSLER

***

UNACCOMPANIED CHILD:

An individual who is under the age of majority and not accompanied by a parent, guardian, or other who by law or custom is responsible for him or her.

SAMPLE LISTING OF EMERGENCIES IN WHICH THERE WERE LARGE NUMBERS OF UNACCOMPANIED CHILDREN

1919-:

RUSSIAN REVOLUTION

1936-:

SPANISH CIVIL WAR

1939-:

FINNISH CHILDREN TO SWEDEN

1940-:

ENGLISH CHILDREN

1945-:

WORLD WAR II

1948-:

GREECE

1950-:

KOREAN WAR

1956-:

HUNGARIAN CHILDREN

1960-:

CUBAN EXODUS TO THE US

1960-:

TIBETIAN CHILDREN IN INDIA

1970-:

NIGERIAN CIVIL WAR

1970-:

CYCLONE AND TIDAL WAVE IN BANGLADESH

1970-:

BANGLADESH WAR OF INDEPENDENCE

1970-:

VIETNAM

1973-:

ETHIOPIA DURING THE SAHEL DROUGHT

1975-:

VIETNAMESE BABYLIFT

1975-:

VIETNAMESE UNACCOMPANIED MINOR REFUGEES

1975-:

FROM LAOS

1979-:

CAMBODIAN REFUGEES TO THAILAND

1980-:

CUBAN EXODUS TO THE US

1980-:

HAITIAN EXODUS TO THE US

1980-:

LEBANESE CHILDREN TO WEST GERMANY

COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS

1. UNACCOMPANIED CHILDREN ARE AN EXCEPTIONAL PHENOMENA.

2. THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN IS SMALL

3. THAT ACCOMPANIED CHILDREN ARE ORPHANS OR ABANDONED.

4. MOST UNACCOMPANIED CHILDREN ARE INFANTS.

5. THE NEEDS OF UNACCOMPANIED CHILDREN ARE USUALLY MET BY SERVICES NORMALLY PROVIDED TO ADULT POPULATIONS.

BASIC PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES FOR THE CARE OF UNACCOMPANIED CHILDREN

1. CHILDREN ARE BEST-OFF WITH THEIR OWN FAMILIES, CULTURES, AND COMMUNITIES.

2. CHILDREN NEED THE CONTINUOUS CARE OF NURTURANT ADULTS.

3. CHILDREN SHOULD BE PROVIDED CARE THAT MEETS THEIR AGE-RELATED DEVELOPMENT NEEDS

REASONS FOR CHILDREN BECOMING "UNACCOMPANIED"

VOLUNTARY SEPARATION

1. ABANDONED
2. ENTRUSTED
3. SURRENDERED
4. INDEPENDENT
5. CONSCRIPTED

INVOLUNTARY SEPARATIONS

6. ABDUCTED
7. LOST
8. ORPHANED
9. RUNAWAY
10. REMOVED


Children in orphanages Korea 1995-1990


Where Unaccompanied Children are likely to be found


Unaccompanied children may not be totally alone.

REASONS FOR CHILDREN BECOMING "UNACCOMPANIED"

VOLUNTARY SEPARATIONS: WITH THE PARENT'S CONSENT.

1. ABANDONED:

A CHILD WHOSE PARENT (S) HAS DESERTED HIM WITH NO INTENTION OF REUNION.

2. ENTRUSTED:

A CHILD VOLUNTARILY PLACED IN THE CARE OF ANOTHER ADULT, OR IN AN INSTITUTION, BY PARENTS WHO INTEND TO RECLAIM HIM.

3. SURRENDERED:

A CHILD WHOSE PARENTS HAVE PERMANENTLY GIVE UP THEIR PARENTAL RIGHTS.

4. INDEPENDENT:

A CHILD LIVING APART FROM PARENTS WITH PARENTAL CONSENT.

5. CONSCRIPTED:

ENLISTED IN FIGHTING UNITS WITH OR WITHOUT THEIR PARENTS CONSENT OR THEIR OWN.

FOURTEEN BASIC PROGRAM ACTIONS REQUIRED FOR THE CARE AND PROTECTION OF UNACCOMPANIED CHILDREN IN EMERGENCIES

PRIOR TO THE EMERGENCY:

1. INSTITUTIONAL PREPAREDNESS

AT THE ONSET OF THE EMERGENCY:

2. SITUATION ASSESSMENT
3. PREVENTIVE PROGRAMMING
4. SEARCH FOR UNACCOMPANIED CHILDREN

INITIAL CARE: UPON IDENTIFICATION OF AN UNACCOMPANIED CHILD. (PERIOD - DAYS)

5. REGISTRATION
6. EMERGENCY PLACEMENT
7. EMERGENCY SERVICES

INTERIUM CARE: TEMPORARY PERIOD UNTIL LONG TERM CARE IS ARRANGED. (PERIOD - WEEKS TO MONTHS)

8. PLACEMENT
9. BASIC SERVICES
10. DOCUMENTATION
11. TRACING
12. GUARDIANSHIP OR REPRESENTATION

LONG TERM CARE: CARE UNTIL THE CHILD REACHES ADULTHOOD. (PERIOD - YEARS)

13. PLACEMENT
14. SUPPORTIVE SERVICES

DAILY EVALUATION FORM

Day _______________
Session ____________

1. In your view, what were the key points learned in this session?

2. Comment on the application of these within UNICEF and your situation.

3. Suggest any additional critical points that should have been covered.

4. Do you have comments on the suggested reading?

Suggest any additional information sources for sessions of the day.
Texts:
Persons:
Case Studies:
Film:
Other:

5. Comment on the learning methodology (lectures, group work, films) used in the session.