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close this bookEM-FACT (Emergency Country Fact Sheets) (Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, 1991, 250 p.)
close this folderSOUTH ASIA
close this folderSOUTHERN ASIA
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India

Geographic Region SOUTH ASIA

POPULATION

TOTAL 844,000,000 (1991) (54)
DENSITY (sq.km.) 242.3 (4)
GROWTH RATE 2.2 (1980 - 89) (10)
% URBAN 27 (1989) (10)
% UNDER 5 13.6 (1989) (10)

LOGISTICS

OFFICIAL WORK WEEK

Monday - Friday

BUSINESS HOURS

0930 - 1800 (52)

PUBLIC HOLIDAYS

Holidays vary by locality - Delhi listed here

26 Jan. - Republic Day
2 Oct. - Gandhi's Birthday
25-26 Dec. - Christmas
Jan. - Pongal*
Jan.-Mar. - Maha Shrivratri & Holi*
Mar.-Apr. - Ram Navami &Mahabir* Jayanti
29 Mar. - Good Friday*
16 Apr. - Id-al-Fitr*
23 June - Id-uz-Zuha* (1991) (4)
May - Buddha Purnima*
June-July - Rath Yatra*
Aug.-Sept - Janmashtami & Oman*
15 Aug. - Independence Day
Oct.-Nov. - Dussehra, Diwali & Guru Nanak* Jayanti

* Indicates moveable holiday

TRAVEL FORMALITIES

VISA

Needed by those travelling by land. (52)

Not needed by those arriving by air or boat and who have not been in India in the past 6 months, providing their stay will be shorter than 30 days.

VACCINATION

Cholera if coming from infected country. (15)
Yellow fever if any connection to the disease.

PRACTICAL INFORMATION

LANGUAGES

Principal Hindi - official (30%), 16 regional langauages
Foreign English - associate language (4), (52)

UNIT OF MEASUREMENT

metric official (52)

CURRENCY

Rupee 16.78 = US $ 1 (12/89) (4)

SOCIOECONOMIC INFORMATION

GNP/CAPITA $ 340 (1988) (10)

RELIGIONS (%)

Hindu - 80 (2)
Muslim - 11
Christian - 2.6
Sikh, Buddhist, other - 3

DEVELOPMENT AID (% of GNP)

1 (1988) (10)

ETHNIC GROUPS (%)

Caucasoid - 97 (Indo - Aryans make up 72%) (2)
Protomongoloid, Australoid, Negrito - 2

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

TIME (GMT) + 5.5 (52)

AREA (sq.km.) 3,287,588

CLIMATE

Period

Temperature

7 climactic zones

Cool winter monsoon

Dec.-Mar.

Hot, no - rain, transition

Apr.-May

Rain, monsoon

June-Sept.

Humid

Oct.-Nov.


(2)


MAP


MAP

HEALTH BASICS

BIRTH RATE* 31 (1989) (10)
DEATH RATE* 11 (1989) (10)
INFANT MORTALITY* 96 (1989) (10)
LIFE EXPECTANCY 59 (1989) (10)
LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (%) 30 (1980 - 88) (10)

* Rate indicates incidence per 1000 population

NUTRITION

STAPLE FOODS

Great variety by region & caste
North - wheat, wheat flour
South - rice

Note -

a) no meat eaten by Brahmin & high caste Hindus
b) no pork eaten by Muslims
c) West Irian - roots & tubers are main staples

(2), (7)

ACCOMPANIMENT

North - pulses, pigeon pea, chick pea, split pea, lentil, milk, yoghurt, ghee, vegetable oil
South - pigeon pea, split pea, lentil, milk, yoghurt, vegetable oil, ghee
(7)

ACCEPTABLE ALTERNATIVES

North - rice, millet, peanut, milk powder
South - sorghum, wheat flour, peanuts, milk
(7)

SEVERE MALNUTRITION (%)

6 (1980 - 88) (10)

NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES

PEM, vitamin A deficiency, vitamin B complex deficiency, iron & folic (12b)
acid deficiency, iodine deficiency

PERSONNEL and FACILITIES

POP./PHYSICIAN 2,520
N° HEALTH CENTERS 5,372
POP./NURSE 1,700 (1984) (19)
N° HOSPITALS 7,847 (4), (16b)
COLD CHAIN

NATIONAL DRUG IMPORTERS

80% of required drugs are produced in India with 500 basic drugs available. India exports 18% of its (52) production.

Raw materials are imported for 20% of the newer drugs.

Distribution accomplished by GOI from Medical Store Depots.

DISEASE and CONTROL

MAJOR DISEASES

Respiratory infections & pneumonia
Measles
Diarrhea
Enteric fever
Parasitic diseases
(12b)

IMMUNIZATION/CONTROL PROGRAM

Tuberculosis
DPT
Polio
Measles
Leprosy
Malaria
(12b), (13), (17)

MINISTRY OF HEALTH ORGANIZATION

DIVISION/PROGRAM AREAS

Population

Family Welfare and Maternal & Child Health

Medical Education

Indian system of Medicine & Homeopathy

Health Education & Communication

Training, Manpower, Planning & Development, Research

Control, Containment of Disease

Intersectoral Program - Integrated Child Development Services

Ministries of Health & Education, Family Welfare, Social Welfare

(12b)

REFERRAL SYSTEM

Primary Health Care - Village Health Guides (VHG) and Rural Health (12b)

Division, Health Sub - Centres, Primary Health Centres

Community Health Care - Community Health Centres

MAJOR DISASTERS SINCE 1900

DISASTER TYPES

NUMBER

PERCENT

Storms & cyclones

96

31,4

Floods

68

22,2

Accidents

50

16,3

Epidemics

24

7,8

Earthquakes

12

3,9

Droughts

12

3,9

Landslides

9

2,9

Coldwaves

9

2,9

Heatwaves

7

2,3

Fires

8

2,6

Avalanches

1

0,3

Chemical accidents

10

3,3

Civil strife



Total Disasters

306


(1)

NATIONAL RESOURCES

FOCAL OFFICE

Crisis Management Group under Cabinet Secretary. (52)
For individual states - Relief and Rehabilitation Ministry.

DISASTER PLAN

Yes, in states of Maharashira, Andrah Pradesh, Orissa. (52)

WARNING SYSTEMS

Detailed guidelines exist for: Droughts, Floods (Central Water Commission), Tropical cyclones, Earthquakes.

Warning system for coldwaves.

(52)

NATIONAL EMERGENCY RESOURCES

EMR - medical stores, emergency communications (feedback, telex, wireless);
Ministry of Agriculture - air support; Vaccines ; Medical teams; Shelters ; Police wireless
(52)

PREPAREDNESS STATUS

National Flood Control Programme
Emergency Medical Relief (EMR)
(52)

EMERGENCY SUPPLIES LIKELY TO BE REQUESTED

Shelters or building materials

Food, blankets, clothing, household utensils, medicines, chemicals for disinfection and water purification

(51)

COMMUNICATIONS

All India Radio - 95% coverage, in 23 languages, 33 dialects. TV - Doordashan India - 86% coverage. (4), (52)

Press - 1,802 dailies. Telecommunications - Coaxial, microwave, UHF.

Railways - 4th largest system in world - 61,812 kms in 9 zones.

Roads - 1,554,204 kms. 31,756 national highways. Increasing numbers of motor vehicles.

Inland waterways - 15,655 kms. Ports - 10 major.

Airports - 4 international.

OTHER RESOURCES

EMERGENCY NGOs

Indian Red Cross
Ramakrishna Mission
ARTIC
CARITAS
OXFAM
(51), (52)

UN AGENCIES

WHO
ILO
IMCO
IMF
IPU
ITC
ITU
IWC
NAM
UN
UNESCO
UPU
WIPO
WMO
WSG
WTO

International Lead and Zinc Study

(9), (52)