Cover Image
close this bookConducting Environmental Impact Assessment in Developing Countries (United Nations University, 1999, 375 p.)
close this folder9. Emerging developments in EIA
close this folder9.6 Social impact assessment
View the document9.6.1 What is SIA? Why SIA?
View the document9.6.2 Identifying social impact assessment variables
View the document9.6.3 Combining social impact assessment variables, project/policy stage, and setting
Open this folder and view contents9.6.4 Steps in the social impact assessment process
View the document9.6.5 Principles for SIA
View the document9.6.6 TOR for consultants

9.6.5 Principles for SIA

In order to make SIA effective, the SIA practitioner should focus on the most significant impacts in order to use appropriate measures and information, to provide quantification where feasible and appropriate, and finally to present the social impacts in a manner that can be understood by decision makers and community leaders.

Table 9.15 Suggested mitigation measures for specific project based impacts

Results from project activities

Environmental effects

Recommended mitigative measures

Environmental examination of project location

Loss of land

• Economic loss
• Hardship to affected people
• Social resentment

Cash compensation and/or resettlement

Loss of housing

• Economic loss
• Hardship to affected people
• Social resentment

Cash compensation and/or resettlement

Loss of roads, bridges, irrigation weir

• Economic loss
• Hardship to affected people
• Social resentment

Construction of replacement

Loss of raw material for brick making

• Economic loss

No measure required, minor loss, existing brick-making kiln is temporary

Resettlement

• Hardship
• Loss of kinship coherence
• Change in way of living

Assistance in skill training, poverty alleviation, infrastructure development

Encroachment into precious ecology

• Loss of ecological values

Environmental management programme

Encroachment on religious values

• Social resentment

Reconstruction of religious establishments

Encroachment on historical/cultural values

• Loss of human values
• Social resentment


Scenic values

• Loss of human values

Avoid destruction whenever possible

Watershed erosion silt run-off

• Shortened reservoir life
• Costly water treatment

Environmental management programme

Impairment of navigation

• Economic loss


Effect on groundwater hydrology

• Economic loss


Impairment of fish migration

• Economic loss
• Ecological damage


Inundation of mineral resources

• Economic loss


Impairment of wildlife movement

• Ecological damage


Encroachment of outsiders

Social problems Ecological damage Impaired reservoir water quality

Environmental management programme; regulation and enforcement

Seismic activity

Economic loss Downstream destruction

Proper structural design of project facilities; contingency plans

Road erosion

• Impairment of water quality
• Reduced land values

Common precaution and control measures; rehabilitation of damaged roads

Reservoir site preparation

• Impaired water treatment plant
• Impaired downstream water quality

Common prevention, precaution, and control measures

Water rights conflicts

• Social conflicts


Fish screens

• Economic loss


Environmental examination of project construction


Dust/fumes

• Human nuisance and hazard

Common prevention, precaution, and control measures

Noise

• Human nuisance and hazard

Common prevention, precaution, and control measures

Soil erosion/silt run-off

• Impaired downstream water quality
• Impaired downstream land values

Common prevention, precaution, and control measures

Workers' safety

• Human safety

Common prevention, precaution, and control measures

Sanitation at field office and campus

• Public health hazard

Provision of sanitation and waste management

Quarrying hazards

• Human hazard

Common prevention, precaution, and control measures

Presence of labour force

Community nuisance Community resentment Ecological damage

Education of workforce Regulation and enforcement

Borrow areas

Loss of land values Ecological damage Public health hazard Loss of aesthetic values

Common prevention, precaution, and control measures

Environmental aesthetics

Loss of scenic values

Alternative site of borrow area if affordable

Environmental examination of project operations

Downstream flow variations

• Impaired downstream irrigation

Provision in design of adequate downstream irrigation regime

Reduced downstream inundation of fisheries

• Economic loss


Downstream erosion

• Damage to downstream riverside facilities


Lack of reservoir management

• Social conflicts


Eutrophication (aquatic weeds)

• Impairment of fishery


Reduced downstream nutrients

• Economic loss

Compensation, assistance to affected farmers

Insect and vector disease hazards

• Community health hazards


Reservoir bank stability

• Impaired reservoir uses and water quality


Sludge from water treatment plant

• Environmental pollution

Common prevention, precaution, and control measures

Environmental examination of spin-off development

Employment opportunities

• Income generation
• Inequitable benefit sharing

Encouragement of local employment Equitable employment

Reservoir fishery enhancement

• Income generation
• Nutritional improvement
• Inequitable benefit sharing

Planning for fishery project to offset losses Avoid middlemen Community management

Drawdown agriculture

• Extra agricultural production
• Economic development

Appropriate management of drawdown agriculture

Improved water supply

• Improved quality of life for community
• Increased wastewater generation

Provision of water to community Sanitation improvement

Agro-forestry

• Income generation
• Economic development
• Inequitable benefit sharing

Planning for agro-forestry project to offset losses Community management

Wildlife reserves

• Environmental conservation

Use of project for raising environmental awareness

Improved access roads

• Improved quality of life for community
• Loss of ecological values

Use of project for road construction to offset losses Environmental management programme

Reservoir as recreational site

• Economic development in community
• Loss of ecological values
• Inequality in benefit sharing

Use of project for promoting tourism Regulations and enforcement Community management

Women in development

• Improved women's quality of life
• Women suffer more from negative impacts

Use of project for enhancing women's roles and benefits Mitigative measures with focus on women

Critical review criteria

Loss of irreplaceable natural resources


Accelerated use of resources for short-term gains


Endangering of specie?

Environmental management programme

Undesirable rural to urban migration


Increase in affluent/poor people gap


The principles outlined in Table 9.16 augment the ideas and concepts discussed in the earlier sections. These principles are benchmarks for conducting a SIA.