|Rehabilitation and Reconstruction - 1st Edition (Department of Humanitarian Affairs/United Nations Disaster Relief Office - Disaster Management Training Programme - United Nations Development Programme , 1993, 47 p.)|
|Part 1 - Scope of rehabilitation and reconstruction|
Rehabilitation and especially reconstruction often refer to the repair and rebuilding of the physical damage. Authorities and donors focus on the provision of housing, clinics, schools and eventually rebuilding of the infrastructure. As already emphasized in this module, the non-physical damage such as the psychological impact of the event, economic losses, social and cultural disruption to community life can be often overlooked.
The concentration on physical reconstruction is essential for a return to normality and is demanded by society. It is also an easily quantifiable and visible achievement for the authorities and donors. Social, psychological, cultural and even economic recovery is less tangible for government, agency or donor investment and is seen in most cases as the responsibility of the community.
A comprehensive rehabilitation and reconstruction plan should take into consideration both physical and non-physical needs of the communities. Failing to address reconstruction in its complexity can have adverse consequences - firstly it may result in large investment on buildings without the necessary inputs to help the victims to become psychologically fit, socially coherent and economically self-sustained. Secondly, it is important to recognize the links between physical and socio/psychological recovery. For example, the process of disaster victims being active in their own physical rebuilding can have an important economical and therapeutic value. Thus double dividends may result from their active involvement in physical rebuilding. Rehabilitation and reconstruction programs that encourage the affected population to act together in their own interest can also have psychological benefit as well as reducing dependency on external inputs.
The process of disaster victims being active in their own physical rebuilding can have an important economical and therapeutic value.
The sectors that need rehabilitation and reconstruction inputs relate to the disaster type and the elements that are at risk. A comprehensive correlation of these is in the DMTP module, Vulnerability and Risk Assessment.
The following list covers the sectors that can be vulnerable to disaster impact, and which, therefore, will require rehabilitation and reconstruction inputs.
Economic assets (including formal and informal commercial sectors, industrial and agricultural activities etc.)
Administrative and political