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close this bookTuberculosis Control in Refugee Situations - An Inter-Agency Field Manual (World Health Organisation, 1997, 72 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentFOREWORD
View the documentEXECUTIVE SUMMARY
View the documentGLOSSARY
View the documentABBREVIATIONS
Open this folder and view contents1. TUBERCULOSIS (TB)
Open this folder and view contents2. IMPLEMENTATION OF TB CONTROL PROGRAMMES IN REFUGE SITUATIONS
Open this folder and view contents3. MANAGEMENT OF TB IN REFUGEE SITUATIONS - ADULTS
View the document4. MANAGEMENT OF TB IN REFUGEE SITUATIONS - CHILDREN
Open this folder and view contents5. PREVENTION OF TB IN REFUGEE SITUATIONS
Open this folder and view contents6. MONITORING OF TB CONTROL PROGRAMMES IN REFUGEE SITUATIONS
Open this folder and view contents7. EVOLUTION OF TB CONTROL PROGRAMMES IN REFUGEE SITUATIONS
Open this folder and view contentsAPPENDICES
View the documentBIBLIOGRAPHY AND RESOURCES

GLOSSARY

Acid-fast bacilli (AFB)
Bacteria which do not lose their stain when exposed to acid during the staining process e.g. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (the TB organism).

Active case finding
Suspects are vigorously looked for within the community.

Annual risk of TB infection
The chance of an uninfected person becoming infected with the TB organism in a one year period.

Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG)
A live vaccine against TB derived from an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis.

Bactericidal
A drug which kills bacteria.

Bacteriostatic
A drug which stops bacteria from growing

Chronic patients
Patients who have completed a retreatment course of anti-TB medication but have failed to become cured. They are infectious to others and they may excrete drug resistant organisms.

Cohort analysis
An assessment of the treatment outcomes of a group of patients who were diagnosed, registered and planned to have the same treatment, within a defined period (usually 3 months, one year prior to analysis).

Continuation phase of treatment
The second period of treatment, after the initial phase, when treatment is maintained with a reduced number of drugs.

Directly observed therapy
Each dose of medication administered to the patient is observed by the health staff to ensure it is taken and swallowed.

Extra-pulmonary TB
TB of organs other than the lungs. This includes TB of the pleura, lymph nodes, abdomen, genito-urinary tract, skin, joints and bones, and meningitis.

Haemoptysis
Sputum containing blood.

Incidence
The number of new patients of a disease in a defined population during a specified period of time.

Initial phase of treatment
The first period of treatment when a combination of drugs are given to kill as many of the TB organism as possible, as quickly as possible, for a period of 2-3 months.

Mantoux test
A skin test to assess previous BCG vaccination, or infection with the TB organism.

Multiple drug resistant (MDR) TB
Strains of TB organism which are resistant to, at least, both isoniazid and rifampicin.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
The bacteria (organism) which causes TB.

Passive case finding
Screening by sputum microscopy of persons presenting themselves at a health facility with respiratory symptoms (e.g. cough > 3 weeks).

Pulmonary TB
Tuberculosis affecting the lungs.

Short course chemotherapy (SCC)
Treatment with TB drugs for 6 or 8 months duration based on the combination of at least 3 major TB drugs: isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide.

Smear conversion rates
The rate at which a group of patients changes from sputum smear positive to smear negative.

Smear-negative pulmonary TB
either: a patient who fulfils all the following criteria:
· two sets (taken at least 2 weeks apart) of at least two sputum specimens negative for acid-fast bacilli on microscopy
· radiographic abnormalities consistent with pulmonary TB and a lack of clinical response despite one week of a broad-spectrum antibiotic, and
· a decision by a physician to treat with a full curative course of anti-TB chemotherapy.

or: a patient who fulfils all the following criteria:
· severely ill
· at least two sputum specimens negative for acid-fast bacilli by microscopy
· radiographic abnormalities consistent with extensive pulmonary TB (interstitial or miliary), and
· a decision by a physician to treat with a full curative course of anti-TB chemotherapy.

or: a patient whose initial sputum smears were negative, who had sputum sent for culture initially, and whose subsequent sputum culture result is positive.

Smear-positive pulmonary TB:
either: a patient with at least two sputum specimens positive for acid-fast bacilli by microscopy;

or: a patient with at least one sputum specimen positive for acid-fast bacilli by microscopy and radiographic abnormalities consistent with pulmonary TB;

or: a patient with at least one sputum specimen positive for acid-fast bacilli by microscopy, which is culture positive for M. Tuberculosis.

Sputum smear examination
A laboratory technique where acid-fast bacilli (AFB) are stained with the Ziehl-Neelsen method, then identified by microscope.