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close this bookVector and Pest Control in Refugee Situations (United Nations High Commission for Refugee, 1997, 124 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPreface
View the document1. Introduction
View the document2. Factors influencing the spread of vectors in refugee camps
View the document3. Arthropods of medical importance
Open this folder and view contents4. Mosquitos
Open this folder and view contents5. Non-biting flies
Open this folder and view contents6. Lice
Open this folder and view contents7. Fleas
Open this folder and view contents8. Bed bugs
Open this folder and view contents9. Human scabies mites
Open this folder and view contents10. Ticks
Open this folder and view contents11. Other arthropods of medical importance
Open this folder and view contents12. Snails hosts of schistosomes
Open this folder and view contents13. Commensal rodents
Open this folder and view contents14. Organisation of a control programme
Open this folder and view contents15. Pesticides
Open this folder and view contents16. Safe use of insecticides
View the documentGlossary
View the documentBibliographic selection
View the documentAnnex 1. Some arthropods and their importance to health
View the documentAnnex 2. Morphological characteristics of some arthropods of medical importance
View the documentAnnex 3. Reporting form for spraying operations
View the documentAnnex 4. Calculation of the quantity of solution and insecticide for use in treatments
View the documentAnnex 5. Determination of the insecticide concentration for use in a sprayer
View the documentAnnex 6. Preparation of a solution from an insecticide formulation
View the documentAnnex 7. Preparation of a solution from an emulsifiable concentrate
View the documentAnnex 8. Calculation of the quantity and dilution of insecticide for use in impregnation of fabrics
View the documentAnnex 9. Calculation of the quantity of molluscicide for use in a waterway


This manual grew out of the events which occurred in the Great Lakes region of East Africa (Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda and Upper-Zaire). It reflects the vector-control problems encountered in the refugee camps of the region and proposes a systematic approach to resolving them in the short term through chemical means and, over the long term, through environmental sanitation combined with health education for the communities concerned.

Pest and vector control is a subject to which numerous guides, manuals and other publications have been and will continue to be devoted. Such an abundance of literature reflects the number and importance of the diseases transmitted by vectors and the constant progress being made in the technologies for controlling them, particularly in pesticide technology. However, the fact that pesticides play an important role in vector control should not cause us to lose sight of the potential danger they represent for human health and the environment.

Although every refugee situation is unique in the way it develops and in the type of population concerned, there are, nevertheless, certain common aspects relating to health, hygiene and the environment. The same health problems, along with the same types of vectors and pests, are often present in the early days of refugee movements into high-density sites. This, in principle, favours the use of the same vector control strategies with adaptation, as required, to specific environmental conditions as well as to human, material and financial resources.

It is planned that this manual will be adapted to other situations in other regions (in Africa or elsewhere) where health is at risk owing to the insufficient or inadequate control of vectors and other pests.

Giancarlo Majori

Nicholas Morris



Department of Parasitology

Division of Operational Support

Istituto Superiore di Sanit/TD>

United Nations High

Commissioner for Refugees