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close this bookEmergency Management (United Nations Children's Fund, 390 p.)
close this folderNote to the Trainer
View the documentUse of the Package
View the documentWorkshop Objectives
View the documentContent Outline
View the documentWorkshop Methodology
View the documentFor Effective Training
View the documentFor Effective Presentation
View the documentAudio-visual Aids
View the documentSuggested Timetable*

Use of the Package

1.1 This UNICEF Training Package on Emergency Management contains all the materials required for this course except supplementary readings and is designed to help the trainers/speakers to develop their own lesson plans. Its contents are intended to:

1.1.1 Advise the trainer/speaker on the objectives and learning points of each session and the workshop as a whole.

1.1.2 Minimize the preparation time needed by the trainer/speaker.

1.1.3 Facilitate learning and selection of appropriate teaching methods.

1.2 Session Layout and Content

To facilitate the use of the Package, the course materials are:

1.2.1 Listed by session which can be easily located by means of a numbered tab.

1.2.2 Each session has a similar plan.

1.2.3 For each session, the session plan presents the following information:

i) learning objectives;
ii) learning points to be covered during session;
iii) possible learning methods;
iv) required reading;
v) supplementary reading;
vi) speakers’ preparation aids.

1.3 In Preparing for Your Session

1.3.1 Review objectives and learning points of other sessions to build on and establish linkages with other presentations and avoid duplication.

1.3.2 Attend other sessions if possible or at least those most relevant to your presentation.

1.3.3 Discuss your session and coordinate with other presentors.

1.3.4 Establish the knowledge and skills of the participants upon which you will build on your presentation (this could be established through studying the information sheets on the participants and attending some of the sessions, particularly the ones on the first day).

Workshop Objectives

2.1 Be familiar with UNICEF's mandated policy and procedures for emergency operations and preparedness.

2.2 Understand characteristics of the global relief system for emergencies.

2.3 Describe basic management principles and how they apply to emergency operations.

2.4 Sufficiently understand technical emergency issues to manage professionals in the fields of health, nutrition, water, media, sanitation, logistics, etc.

2.5 Use and apply the "Assisting in Emergencies Handbook".

2.6 Identify early warning signs of an emergency and actions that can be taken when they are identified.

2.7 Identify and explain the steps and priorities in an emergency operation.

2.8 Access an emergency situation and prepare a plan of action and implementation.

2.9 Plan a UNICEF staffing of emergency operations.

2.10 Plan for a phase out of emergency operations.

2.11 Recognize opportunities provided by an emergency situation.

2.12 Share the basic information gained at this Workshop in an effective learning environment to other staff members.

Content Outline

3.1 Policies and Organization

3.1.1 UNICEF's perception of an emergency
3.1.2 Role of UNICEF and obligations
3.1.3 Priorities for UNICEF's response
3.1.4 Responsibilities for UNICEF's response (HQ, RO and COs)

3.2 Key Emergency Management Activities

3.2.1 Early Warning
3.2.2 Pre-disaster planning
3.2.3 Assessment
3.2.4 Operations planning
3.2.5 Decision-making
3.2.6 Information management
3.2.7 Negotiation
3.2.8 Monitoring
3.2.9 Evaluation

3.3 Possible Needs and Responses

3.3.1 Food/nutrition
3.3.2 Health
3.3.3 Water supplies
3.3.4 Hygiene and sanitation
3.3.5 Shelter
3.3.6 Child care and psyco-social needs

3.4 Field Office Operations

3.4.1 Mobilizing and managing personnel
3.4.2 Assuring capacity and support services
3.4.3 Managing funds
3.4.4 Ordering and receiving supplies
3.4.5 External relations

3.5 Training of Trainers

3.5.1 Sharing knowledge and skills with other staff members in country offices
3.5.2 Ways of sharing: training, briefing, distribution of materials

Workshop Methodology

4.1 In order to accomplish the workshop objectives, a number of working methods will be used:

- lectures and video material which present conceptual information as well as examples of what has already been done in a number of countries worldwide;

- open discussions to bring out and clarify related issues and to "brainstorm" on possible solutions;

- small group work drawing on the conceptual and practical information to discuss the implications of specific issues for emergency management;

4.2 In order for the above methodology to be successful, the following is essential:

- full participation of all participants by attending all sessions and by being active in the discussions, group work and simulation;

- having read the pro-workshop reading and referring back to it when necessary;

- completing the daily evaluation forms in order for the workshop steering committee to make needed and possible adjustments;

- a readiness to "go beyond" the normal working day, if need be: days may be longer than usual given the tremendous amount of material to be covered in a short time.

4.3 The small working groups should be formed in such a way as to strike a balance of the levels of experience and knowledge of group members. The role of small group discussion leaders and rapporteurs should be rotated from session to session.

For Effective Training

5.1 Keeping objectives clearly in view: Every good training must be clearly specified of objectives to be achieved in a limited time period. It is important to keep the objectives in mind (and in the participants' minds) as there is limited time for digression. Participants’ expectations must be added in the objectives. Any "unable to do" expectations must also be indicated from the beginning. Considerable tact and diplomacy may be required to keep participants on the right track.

5.2 Climate setting: Climate setting begins when the participants walk into the course. Initial impressions are of tremendous importance - you can switch people on or off very rapidly. Use selected tactics, both verbal and non-verbal, to establish a warm, supportive learning atmosphere. The facilities provided, the seating arrangements, the course leader's appearance and manner are all crucial to the sort of climate created. "Ice breakers" should be used in the initial stages of the course -time invested pays off well. Sensitivity to the course climate is required as the course progresses, and the facilitator should be prepared to warm things up if necessary.

5.3 Stage setting: Although the training activities are carefully designed as learning experiences, adults tend to be conservative and resent new experiences. Setting the stage for an activity in a manner which makes that activity appear relevant, worthwhile and even enjoyable requires careful preplanning.

5.4 Synthesizing background experience of participants with course activities: Ensure that some information is available about the professional background of course participants prior to the course. This can be supplemented where necessary during warm-up activities, e.g. participants can be asked to briefly describe who they are and why they have come. Invite sharing of experiences relevant to aspects of problems being discussed and encourage participants to regard each other as valuable learning resources. If this is done skill fully the learning experience will become much more closely related to the "real" world.

5.5 Consolidation: Following each phase of activity or at the end of each day during a training course it is essential that the course leader draws all of the threads of the learning experience together to form a firm basis from which learning can move forward. It is important to make clear to participants what has been gained from a particular activity, and to emphasize how these outcomes relate to the overall achievement of course objectives.

Many of the activities demand a concerted effort from participants, and this can only be sustained by generating a feeling that the outcomes of each experience represent a worthwhile gain in learning.

Without frequent and skillful consolidation the succession of different activities and changes of pace can leave participants feeling bewildered.

5.6 Sensitivity to individual needs: In a training course people from a wide variety of backgrounds come together for a relatively short period of time, therefore facilitators need to be extra sensitive to the needs of individuals.

5.7 Feedback: A good training design should be based on behavioural theory: input, process, output cycles. The effectiveness of this as a learning process depends on the feedback available to learners on the quality of each output in relation to the objectives of the course. Feedback is required from the earliest activities of the course so that the subsequent behaviour of the learners can be progressively modified in the light of feedback obtained. The course leader must be able to assess when feedback is required and what form it should take - sometimes the reinforcement provided by an encouraging smile is adequate. On other occasions participants may need a detailed list of criteria to use as a basis for evaluation of the "output". As well as providing feedback to course participants, the course leader must look for and accept criticism from course participants on all aspects of the course and the manner in which it is presented. In this way both teaching and learning can be improved.

For Effective Presentation

6.1 Giving clear directions: The ideal of good training is the training must emphasize learning by doing. The ability of the course presenter to give clear directions for each phase of the activity is crucial to the success of the course. If participants are unsure of what they are supposed to be doing and why, they quickly become frustrated or hostile or both. Although written directions are given for each activity these are intended to reinforce the clear verbal directions given by the course leader - statements about "what", "why", and "how long for" should be made in regard to each activity.

6.2 Group facilitating: The emphasis on group work in a training course involves a shift from the "management from the front" approach to teaching, to highly structured activities which are largely group directed. Helping groups move steadily towards the set objectives is a vital skill required of course leaders. Facilitation does not necessarily involve intervention in the group's activity - often the most helpful thing is to withdraw for a while. In order to be an effective facilitator the course leader must be able to establish the right sort of relationship with the group - his/her presence should be readily accepted without causing disruption to the group activity. The course leader must be regarded as an able listener as well as talker. Unless a group is getting off the track, or intervention is invited for a specific purpose, the course leader should play a low key role. However, if firm guidance is required be authoritative never authoritarian.

6.3 Keep it brief: The presenter should respond to signs of boredom or agitation, and be prepared for comment or questions.

6.4 Questioning: This skill has many uses, from providing reassurance that directions are understood, to probing for understanding of complex concepts. Questions should be used frequently to monitor the presenter's success as a teacher, and the success of participants as learners. Clear formulation and direction of questions is essential. Establish at the outset that facilitators are always ready to answer questions. Be honest, if you don't know the answer call upon the resources of the group to help you out.

6.5 Pacing: Prior to the commencement of the course the presenter should check how much time to allow for each activity, and what degree of flexibility is possible. Pacing should be as unobtrusive as possible - participants can be encouraged to help with pacing if expectations are made clear at each phase of the activity.

6.6 Intervention: Considerable tact and experience is required if intervention in learning is not to become interference. During small group work occasional intervention may be required to provide general orientation, clarification or information. The course presenter must be a good listener and watch for non-verbal signals from participants that all is not proceeding smoothly. Occasionally groups are dominated in a non-productive way by one or two members. Verbal intervention on the part of the course leaders may resolve the problem, if not, the group may have to be broken up and integrated with other groups.

6.7 Closure: Requires a clear understanding of what the intended outcomes of each phase of the activities are. When these outcomes have been attained, that phase of the experience should be brought to an end, perhaps by making the outcomes overt and relating these back to the course objectives. Be prepared to pick up loose ends and be patient if participants feel they have not finished exploring a particular issue.

6.8 Summarizing: A great deal may happen in a short time in small group situations. Often time does not allow extensive reporting back by each group, therefore, it is up to the course leader to note the essential happenings and ensure that these are included in the final summary of events. Where activities are proceeding at a fairly fast pace frequent summaries which are both coherent and concise can facilitate learning.

Audio-visual Aids

7.1 An audiovisual aid is any device which can be seen or heard by a group and helps the instructor/trainer in his/her presentation.

7.2 A good visual aid can do a lot of "talking". It can set the scene for you; it can summarize your main points or it can review your whole talk.

7.3 The effective use of audio-visual aids requires careful preparation, some rehearsing, certain skills and some extra time to set up the room in which you are to make your presentation.

7.4 A good visual aid must be simple, legible, appropriate, planned, accurate, colorful, manageable and realistic.

7.5 In using visual aids, don't talk to the aid, don't stand in front of it, hold it up for all to see and keep it up long enough for the group to see.

7.6 Types of audio-visual aids you might consider using are: films, slides, transparencies, chalkboards, flipcharts, graphs, flannel, etc.

Suggested Timetable*

* This timetable can be modified based on the needs of each particular office or region. Time allocated for certain sessions can be expanded. Some sessions can be combined, others can be dropped, e.g. Training of Trainers, if the package is not used in a regional workshop.

Day One

0900 - 0930

Session 0: Opening Session

Welcome Address Introduction of Participants Administrative Details

Session 1: Course Introduction

0930 - 1000

Review Objective of the Course and Workshop Methodology

1000 - 1030

View Video on Karamoja Emergency

1030 - 1045

Coffee Break

1045 - 1115

Brainstorming on Issues Raised by Video

1115 - 1130

Plenary Discussion

Session 2: Perceptions of Emergencies

1130 - 1200

Group Exercise

1200 - 1230

Plenary

1230 - 1400

Lunch

Session 3: Simulation*

* This Simulation Exercise is recommended only for Regional Workshops of ten-day duration. It requires an external resource person for its conduct. Materials or the simulation are still being developed and will be available by July 1988.

1400 - 1500

Orientation to the Simulation Exercise

1500 - 1600

Individual Preparations/Reading for the Simulation and Other Sessions

Day Two

0900 - 0915

Review of Day One Sessions (Listening Team)

0915 - 1700

All Day Simulation Exercise

Day Three

0900 - 1100

Session 4: Principles of Emergency Management

0915 - 1000

Lecture

1000 - 1030

Group Exercise

1030 - 1045

Coffee Break

1045 - 1100

Plenary


Session 5: Early Warning

1100 - 1130

Presentation

1130 - 1200

Group Exercise

1200 - 1230

Plenary

1230 - 1400

Lunch

Session 6: Assessment

1400 - 1500

Lecture

1500 - 1600

Group Exercise

1600 - 1615

Coffee Break

1615 - 1700

Plenary

Day Four


Session 7: Programme Planning

0900 - 0915

Review of Day Three Sessions (Listening Team)

0915 - 1000

Lecture

1000 - 1030

Group Exercise

1030 - 1045

Coffee Break

1045 - 1100

Plenary


Session 8: Water and Sanitation

1100 - 1200

Lecture

1200 - 1230

Analysis of Case Study

1230 - 1400

Lunch


Session 9: Health

1400 - 1500

Lecture

1500 - 1530

Group Exercise

1530 - 1600

Plenary

1600 - 1615

Coffee Break


Session 10: Food and Nutrition

1615 - 1630

Presentation

1630 - 1700

Group Exercise

1700 - 1730

Plenary

Day Five


Session 11: Media Relations

0900 - 0915

Review of Day Four Sessions (Listening Team)

0915 - 0930

Presentation

0930 - 0945

Video. "What About the U.N.?"

0945 - 1030

Group Exercise

1030 - 1045

Coffee Break

1045 - 1115

Plenary


Session 12: Supply and Logistics

1115 - 1200

Lecture

1200 - 1230

Discussion on Regional Specific Issues

1230 - 1400

Lunch


Session 13: Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances

1400 - 1430

Presentation

1430 - 1500

Video, "Children of the Terror"

1500 - 1515

Coffee Break

1515 - 1600

Group Exercise and Plenary

Day Six


Session 14: International Relief System

0900 - 0915

Review of Day Five Sessions (Listening Team)

0915 - 1000

Presentation/Case Study

1000 - 1030

Group Exercise

1030 - 1045

Coffee Break

1045 - 1100

Plenary


Session 15: Funding

1100 - 1130

Lecture

1130 - 1200

Preparation of Budget Exercise

1200 - 1230

Discussion

1230 - 1400

Lunch


Session 16: Key Operating Procedures

1400 - 1500

Lecture

1500 - 1530

Case Study

1530 - 1600

Discussion

1600 - 1615

Coffee Break

1615 - 1700

Exercise in BAL Amendments

Day Seven


Session 17: Application of Emergency Manual & Handbook

0900 - 0930

Review of Day Six Sessions (Listening Team)

0930 - 1030

Group Exercise

1030 - 1045

Coffee Break

1045 - 1130

Group Exercise (Cont'd)

1130 - 1230

Plenary

1230 - 1400

Lunch


Session 18: Training of Trainers

1400 - 1430

Presentation

1430 - 1500

Group Exercise

1500 - 1530

Video, "Meetings, Bloody Meetings"

1530 - 1600

Discussion

1600 - 1700

Presentation on Training Methods