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close this bookCountry Report Nigeria - ICRC Worldwide Consultation on the Rules of War (International Committee of the Red Cross , 1999, 56 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAbout the People on War project
View the documentCountry context
View the documentCountry methodology
View the documentExecutive summary
close this folderThe war experience
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View the documentRegional conflict
View the documentThe chaos of war
close this folderProtection of civilians
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View the documentLimits and dissonance
View the documentAn array of norms
close this folderBreakdown of limits
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View the documentErosion of restrictions
View the documentRegional tensions
View the documentConfusion and doubt
View the documentCycle of violence leads to dilemma
close this folderCaptured combatants at risk
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View the documentTorture
close this folderGeneva Conventions and limits in war
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View the documentPunishment
close this folderThe role of the ICRC/Red Cross
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View the documentBiggest role
close this folderReconciliation and the future
View the documentReconciliation
View the documentOptimism
View the documentAnnex 1: General methodology
View the documentAnnex 2: Questionnaire*

Country methodology

The findings in this report are based on a consultation carried out by the ICRC in the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The project was overseen by a multinational research team from Greenberg Research, with the participation of a local partner, Market Trends Nigeria, Ltd. (MTNL), a public opinion research firm based in Lagos. With their help and guidance, ICRC staff and members of the Nigerian Red Cross Society (NRCS) conducted the various components of the research.

The research included three components:

· Eight focus groups (FG), for which participants were recruited by specially trained ICRC staff. Professional moderators associated with MTNL facilitated the groups in English and Ibo. The moderators received additional training and instructions from senior Greenberg Research staff. Sessions were held with the following groups: journalists in Lagos, former Biafran field commanders, women who lost children during the war (the only group not conducted in English), female students in Enugu, former captured Biafran combatants, medical workers and primary school teachers in Port Harcourt, and former Federal Army commanders in Kaduna.

· Twenty in-depth interviews (IDI) carried out by NRCS staff. Greenberg Research trained NRCS staff in how to recruit participants and how to conduct a structured 45-minute interview. Each interview was audiotaped in English, from which transcriptions were made for further analysis. Respondents included teachers, professors, former combatants from both sides of the conflict, members of the armed forces and a professional soccer player.

· A national quantitative survey of 1,000 respondents of at least 18 years of age and stratified geographically according to population, with an oversample of 200 respondents in the area formerly encompassed by Biafra. The NRCS administered the survey under the supervision of Greenberg Research and MTNL. Greenberg Research, in conjunction with the ICRC and MTNL, developed the sampling frame for this survey. The survey took place between 5 and 30 June 1999. Percentages reported here are subject to a sampling error of +/- 4.5 percentage points (at a 95 in 100 confidence level). Results in smaller segments, such as the 412 interviews in the south-eastern region, are subject to an error of +/- 7.0 percentage points.2

2These estimates are based on population values of 50 per cent. Obviously, many reported percentages are lower or higher than that; higher percentages would have a smaller sampling error. For example, a reported percentage of 90 per cent for the total population would have a sampling error of +/- 2.7 percentage points.