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close this bookEM-FACT (Emergency Country Fact Sheets) (Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, 1991, 250 p.)
close this folderSOUTH ASIA
close this folderSOUTHEAST ASIA
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Myanmar

Geographic Region SOUTHEAST ASIA

POPULATION

TOTAL 40,800,000 (1989) (10)
DENSITY (sq.km.) 58.2 (1988) (4b)
GROWTH RATE 2 (1980 - 87) (5), (10)
% URBAN 25 (1989) (10)
% UNDER 5 13.5 (1989) (10)

LOGISTICS

OFFICIAL WORK WEEK

Monday - Friday

BUSINESS HOURS

0930 - 1630 (9)

PUBLIC HOLIDAYS

4 Jan. - Independence Day
12 Feb. - Union Day
2 Mar. - Peasants Day
Mar. - Full Moon of Tabaung*
27 Mar. - Armed Forces Day
Apr. - Workers Day*
May - Full Moon*
23 June - Id-al-Adha*
19 July - Martyrs Day (1991) (4)
Aug. - Full Moon*
Oct. - Full Moon*
Oct. - Devali*
Nov. - Tazaungdaing Fest*
3 Dec. - National Day
25 Dec. - Christmas

* indicates moveable holidays

TRAVEL FORMALITIES

VISA

Required (9)

VACCINATION

Yellow fever if coming from infected area. (9), (15)
When leaving - cholera if going to infected area.

PRACTICAL INFORMATION

LANGUAGES

Principal Burmese (official) plus tribal languages
Foreign / (4)

UNIT OF MEASUREMENT

Imperial (4)

CURRENCY

Kyat. 6.494 = US $ 1 (12/89) (4)

SOCIOECONOMIC INFORMATION

GNP/CAPITA US $ 220 (1988) (10)

RELIGIONS (%)

Buddhist (Hinayanar, Theravada) - 85, (4), (5)
Traditional - 5
Muslim - 4
Christian - 4.5,
Taoists, Confucianists

DEVELOPMENT AID (% of GNP)

4 ('88)(10)

ETHNIC GROUPS (%)

Burmese - 68 (5), (3),
Karen - 6.6 (52)
Indian - 5,
Kagan, Shan, Kashin, Rakhime - 3
Chinese - 2, Mon - 2

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

TIME (GMT) /

AREA (sq.km.) 676,552 (4)

CLIMATE

Period

Temperature

Tropical Monsoons

average 27°C

Southwest - June - Sept.

With range of 18°C-36°C

Northeast - Dec.-Apr.



(4), (52)


MAP


MAP

HEALTH BASICS

BIRTH RATE* 30 (1989) (10)
DEATH RATE* 9 (1989) (10)
INFANT MORTALITY* 67 (1989) (10)
LIFE EXPECTANCY 61 (1989) (10)
LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (%) 16 (1980 - 88) (10), (19)

* Rate indicates incidence per 1000 population

NUTRITION

STAPLE FOODS

Rice
in hills, some corn
(7), (53)

ACCOMPANIMENT

vegetables
pulses
fish
meat (generally not beef or mutton)
vegetable and soya oil

(7) (57)

ACCEPTABLE ALTERNATIVES

wheat flour
vegetable oil
(7)

SEVERE MALNUTRITION (%)

38 moderate & severe (1980 - 89) (10)

NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES

Mineral deficiencies - iron (anemia), iodine (goitre), thiamin, riboflavin. (57), (55)
B & A vitamin deficiencies.
PEM.

PERSONNEL and FACILITIES

POP./PHYSICIAN 3740
N° HEALTH CENTERS /
POP./NURSE 900 (1984) (19)
N° HOSPITALS 631 (51)
COLD CHAIN at the airport & in capital (53), (55)

NATIONAL DRUG IMPORTERS

Burma Pharmaceutical Industry is sole producer under the supervision of Pharmaceutical Industries Corporation.
(18), (57)

Supplier is Central Medical Stores Depot (CMSD).

DISEASE and CONTROL

MAJOR DISEASES

Malaria
Intestinal infections & diarrhea
Pulmonary tuberculosis
Pneumonia
Trachoma
(12b), (53), (57)

IMMUNIZATION/CONTROL PROGRAM

Tuberculosis, DPT, Polio, Measles, Tetanus
Malaria,
Leprosy,
Trachoma,
Venereal disease,
Filariasis
(10), (17), (12b), (13), (57)

MINISTRY OF HEALTH ORGANIZATION

DIVISION/PROGRAM AREAS

SERVICE

Environmental Sanitation, Primary Health Care and Services, Expanded Programme of Immunization, Family Health Care, Control of Vector - Borne Diseases, Medical care

SUPPORT

Health Information Service; Laboratory Support Service; Staff & Procedure Development; Health Practices Research; Supplies, Maintenance, Repair;

Production & Quality Control of Biological & Pharmaceuticals

(18), (56)

REFERRAL SYSTEM

Local - Voluntary health workers (VHW),Community Health Workers (56)
(CHW), Auxilliary Midwives. Some Rural Health Sub - Centres.

District - Rural Health Centres, some Urban Health Centres

Regional - Health Stations and Regional Hospitals

National - Central hospitals

MAJOR DISASTERS SINCE 1900

DISASTER TYPES

NUMBER

PERCENT

Fires

17

40,5

Cyclones

11

26,2

Accidents

6

14,3

Floods

5

11,9

Epidemics

2

4,8

Earthquakes

1

2,4

Civil strife



Total Disasters

42


(1)

NATIONAL RESOURCES

FOCAL OFFICE

Central Relief Committee (57)

DISASTER PLAN

none (57)

WARNING SYSTEMS

Information not available

NATIONAL EMERGENCY RESOURCES

Relief activities coordinated by Ministry of Government and Central Relief Committee
(57)

PREPAREDNESS STATUS

Township Disaster Coordinating Committees.
(53)

EMERGENCY SUPPLIES LIKELY TO BE REQUESTED

See WHO/UNHCR Emergency Kit

COMMUNICATIONS

Radio - 3.1 million sets, 2 AM & 1 FM stations. Broadcasting limited to populous areas. (4), (52), (57)

TV - 50,000 sets, 1 channel. Myanma Broadcasting Service covers radio & TV. Press - 6 dailies.

Telecommunications - international service good.

Railroads - 3878 kms. - gov't owned. Roads - 27,000 km total.

Canals & waterways - 12,800 kms, 3200 kms can be travelled by large commercial vessels.

Airports - 1 international, 81 usable (28 with permanent runways). Rain presents hazards.

OTHER RESOURCES

EMERGENCY NGOs

National Red Cross
CWS
Christian Childrens Fund
(57)

UN AGENCIES

FAO
UNDP
WHO
UNICEF
UNIC
UNFDAC
(9)