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close this bookICRC Activities in Zaire/Democratic Republic of Congo: 1994 - 3 February 1999 (International Committee of the Red Cross , 124 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentZaire
View the documentZaire/Rwanda/Burundi: ICRC voices acute anxiety
View the documentZaïre: Masisi - a forgotten conflict
View the documentZaire: ICRC resumes activities in Masisi
Open this folder and view contentsZaire, (delegation also covers the Congo)
View the documentZaire: tragic plane crash in Kinshasa
View the documentRwanda/Zaire: “ICRC transit service”
View the documentZaire: new humanitarian emergency in North Kivu
View the documentUpdate No. 96/1 on ICRC activities in Rwanda
View the documentSouth Kivu: ICRC calls for restraint
View the documentUpdate No. 96/1 on ICRC activities in Zaire
View the documentKivu: a major human tragedy in the making
View the documentTribute to Zairian Red Cross volunteers
View the documentGreat Lakes Region: assistance in Goma
View the documentBreaking the humanitarian deadlock in Kivu
View the documentUpdate No. 96/2 on ICRC activities in Zaire
View the documentUpdate No. 96/3 on ICRC activities in Zaire
View the documentGreat Lakes: ICRC ready to act
View the documentUpdate No. 96/4 on ICRC activities in Zaire
View the documentGreat Lakes: volunteers in action
View the documentZaire: ICRC operation gets under way
View the documentUpdate No. 96/5 on ICRC activities in Zaire
View the documentUpdate No. 96/6 on ICRC activities in Zaire
View the documentUpdate No. 96/7 on ICRC activities in Zaire
View the documentGreat lakes: displaced: a zairian’s firsthand account “I had to cover 220 miles on foot”
View the documentUpdate No. 96/8 on ICRC activities related to the Zairian crisis
View the documentUpdate No. 9 on ICRC activities related to the Zairian crisis
View the documentRwanda: 1,000 children already reunited with their families
View the documentUpdate No. 10 on ICRC activities related to the Zairian crisis
View the documentUpdate No. 11 on ICRC activities related to the Zairian crisis
View the documentUpdate No. 12 on ICRC activities related to the Zairian crisis
View the documentUpdate No. 13 on ICRC activities related to the Zairian crisis
View the documentUpdate No. 14 on ICRC activities related to the Zairian crisis
View the documentUpdate No. 15 on ICRC activities related to the Zairian crisis
View the documentZaire: ICRC still only organization working in Shabunda
View the documentUpdate No. 16 on ICRC activities related to the Zairian crisis
View the documentZaire, (delegation also covers the Congo)
View the documentUpdate No. 1 on ICRC activities related to the Zairian crisis
View the documentRwanda: refugees return to Kamembe
View the documentRwanda: nearly 8,000 children reunited with their families
View the documentUpdate No. 97/02 on ICRC activities related to the Zairian crisis
View the documentUpdate No. 97/03 on ICRC activities related to the Zairian conflict
View the documentUpdate No. 97/04 on ICRC activities related to the Zairian conflict
View the documentZaire: back in Kisangani
View the documentZaire: ICRC demands access to conflict victims
View the documentZaire: airlift for displaced Zairians
View the documentZaire: Lives of thousands of refugees at stave
View the documentZaire: More than 2,000 Zairians back home
View the documentUpdate No. 97/6 on ICRC activities related to the Zairian conflict
View the documentZaire
View the documentZaire: Ten volunteers of the Zairian Red Cross killed in Kenge
View the documentUpdate No. 97/8 on ICRC activities related to the Zairian conflict
View the documentZaire: More work for the tracing agency
View the documentDemocratic Republic of Congo (former Zaire): After the storm
View the documentUpdate No. 9 on ICRC activities in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and neighbouring countries
View the documentRwanda: Do you know this child?
View the documentDemocratic Republic of Congo: Homeward bound
View the documentUpdate No. 97/10 on ICRC activities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (former Zaire)
View the documentBrazzaville and Kinshasa: Medical aid on both sides of the river Congo
View the documentUpdate No. 2 on ICRC activities in Congo-Brazzaville
View the documentBrazzaville/Kinshasa: Relief work progressing
View the documentDemocratic Republic of the Congo: Priority in Kivu given to clean water and medical care
View the documentDemocratic Republic of the Congo: Displaced people go home on barges
View the documentDemocratic Republic of the Congo
View the documentICRC denounces killing of employee in Kinshasa
View the documentThe ICRC condemns and deplores two serious security incidents
View the documentDemocratic Republic of the Congo: ICRC opens office in Bunia
View the documentDemocratic Republic of the Congo: Health programme in Oriental province
View the documentDemocratic Republic of the Congo: inauguration of limb-fitting workshop in Kinshasa
View the documentDemocratic Republic of the Congo: ICRC appeals for compliance with humanitarian rules
View the documentDemocratic Republic of the Congo: First visits to detainees and water for population
View the documentDemocratic Republic of the Congo: Water and war
View the documentDemocratic Republic of the Congo: ICRC gains access to further place of detention in Kinshasa
View the documentDemocratic Republic of the Congo: Visits to detainees and family news
View the documentDemocratic Republic of the Congo
View the documentCentral African Republic: Congolese civilians arrive in Bangui
View the documentDemocratic Republic of the Congo: ICRC opens an office in Kalemie

Zaire

Annual report 1994

The ethnic diversity of certain regions of Zaire remained a source of hatred and violence in 1994. The expulsion of much of the Kasaian community from Shaba in 1992 and tension between the Banyarwanda community and the indigenous population of North Kivu in 1993 had left hundreds of thousands of displaced people in need of urgent assistance. Some of them were still living in extremely precarious conditions in 1994. The Kivu region was further destabilized by the arrival of around 1.5 million Rwandan refugees in North and South Kivu in June 1994.

The political scene remained complex, even after a new government was formed in July. This exacerbated the socio-economic crisis and the resulting decline in the population’s living standards. However, despite a fragile new government, a yearly inflation rate of over 6,000 per cent, a marked deterioration in public services, especially health, education and transport, soaring unemployment, months of unpaid salaries and a general lack of security, the nation somehow managed to avoid sliding into ruin.

In October new disturbances broke out in the Masisi area of North Kivu between the indigenous population on the one hand and Rwandan refugees, along with residents of Banyarwanda-Hutu origin, on the other, the Banyarwanda people of Tutsi origin having virtually all returned to Rwanda. The ICRC sub-delegation in Goma closely monitored developments and stood ready to launch a protection and assistance programme if necessary. It also pursued its training programme for volunteers of the Red Cross of Zaire to improve their emergency preparedness. The programme was part of an ongoing nationwide effort to train first-aid volunteers and create teams capable of taking rapid action in emergencies. This effort focused on East and West Kasai in 1994.

Activities for the civilian population

The ICRC continued to provide emergency food assistance in 1994 for concentrations of displaced people in Shaba (Kolwezi and Likasi), numbering over 80,000, who were waiting for trains or other transport to take them to the Kasai, their region of origin. ICRC distributions continued throughout the year in Likasi, where in December 32,800 of the affected population still remained. The last displaced Kasaians in Kolwezi left in July and were given a “leaving ration”. The ICRC’s office in Kolwezi was closed in August.

In North Kivu the ICRC provided items such as blankets and agricultural tools to certain vulnerable groups, and carried out a programme in conjunction with the Red Cross of Zaire to protect natural springs.

The huge wave of refugees from Rwanda which started flooding into the Goma area on 14 July created an unprecedented emergency. The ICRC immediately increased its staff in Goma and in the newly opened office in Bukavu. For details of ICRC activities in this connection see under Rwanda.

Activities for detainees

Visits to places of detention were carried out around the country in 1994, with the agreement of the Zairian authorities. Delegates visited detainees falling within the ICRC’s mandate and held for reasons of State security, and in Kivu visits were made to people detained in connection with the unrest in the Ruwenzori area and to Rwandan refugees detained and threatened with expulsion.

In view of the enormous difficulties that the Zairian prison service was having in providing acceptable living conditions for all its prisoners, the ICRC decided to assist all inmates in some places of detention visited. The assistance was provided through local non-governmental organizations and religious groups already working in this domain and took the form of nutritional supplements, improvements to sanitation and material aid. Over 2,000 inmates in 16 different places of detention were covered by the programme in the Kinshasa, Bas-Zaire, East Kasai, Shaba, North Kivu and South Kivu regions. A nutritional assessment was carried out in each establishment prior to distributions and inmates were examined by ICRC medical staff. In January a water and sanitation project was completed in Goma prison.

Tracing

The tracing activities of the regional delegation in Kinshasa included the registration of unaccompanied minors in Kivu (see Rwanda) and providing Red Cross message services for Rwandan refugees in Kivu, Angolan refugees in Shaba and Sudanese refugees in Haut-Zaire.

Dissemination

Having obtained authorization at the start of the year from the general headquarters of the armed forces of Zaire, the ICRC stepped up its dissemination activities in the Shaba region and in North and South Kivu. In April and June a series of dissemination sessions was organized, reaching 500 officers of the army and the security forces. From 9 to 12 August the ICRC held its first seminar on international humanitarian law for the security forces in Kinshasa. The 30 senior officers who attended were responsible for training and operations within the Garde civile, the special Presidential Division, the Gendarmerie nationale and the Service de l’Action de Renseignements militaires.

To facilitate the tracing work of the ICRC’s delegates in North and South Kivu, a campaign to spread awareness of ICRC activities and the basic principles of international humanitarian law was begun in November, aimed at those in charge of the camps for Rwandan refugees, elements of the Rwandan armed forces present in Zaire and members of the Zairian armed forces.

From July on the ICRC provided the Red Cross of Zaire with support for its dissemination activities, training 20 dissemination officers to inform the general public in Kinshasa of the role of Red Cross first-aid teams. Similar work carried out by the National Society in Goma in December was backed up by weekly radio programmes and the distribution of a locally made comic book portraying the work of the teams in emergency situations.