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close this bookDisaster Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Policy (International Committee of the Red Cross , 1993, 11 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentFactors affecting rehabilitation and reconstruction 1
View the documentNature of the disaster
View the documentScale of the damage
View the documentLocation of the event
View the documentSectors affected
View the documentAvailable resources
View the documentThe quality of services and structures
View the documentHealth aspects of rehabilitation
View the documentNutritional aspects of rehabilitation
View the documentWater and sanitation aspects of rehabilitation
View the documentProvision of water and sanitation
View the documentConstruction aspects of reconstruction
View the documentProvision of shelter
View the documentAssessment of shelter needs
View the documentShelter strategies
View the documentHousing reconstruction programmes
View the documentSocial and economic aspects of rehabilitation

Shelter strategies

Imported shelter units: In the past too high a priority has been placed on the need for imported, prefabricated, temporary housing. Imported units may not be cost-effective, may suffer from low occupancy and take too long to arrive. They fail to take account of survivors’ needs and wants, climatic variations, cultural heterogeneity, variations in family size and, at times, the lack of available land or problems of land ownership. Furthermore, they do little to mobilise a community to meet its own needs. In general, temporary housing is very costly and is only an option if significant financial resources are available and local solutions cannot be found. Permanent housing may well be cheaper and temporary accommodation can often be found in shelters of various sorts.

Distribution of materials: As an alternative to shelter design, agencies such as National Societies may distribute building materials and tools if these are not readily available, subject to financial controls which will not distort the market and will include the cost of land and services.

Self-help: Self-help methods have many advantages in the mobilisation of the community and the development of existing skills, but they require technical expertise and a long-term commitment by National Societies. Problems of land tenure and the provision of services may have to be resolved by the National Society.