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close this bookSourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Africa (International Environmental Technology Centre - United Nations Environment Programme, 1998, 182 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
close this folderPart A - Introduction
View the document1. Background
View the document2. Purpose of the source book
View the document3. Organisation of the source book
View the document4. How to use the source book
View the document5. Survey methodology
View the document6. Summary of the survey results
View the document7. Recommendations
View the document8. References
close this folderPart B - Technology profiles
View the document(introduction...)
close this folder1. Agricultural technologies
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close this folder1.1 Fresh water augmentation
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View the document1.1.1 Planting pits (zai)
View the document1.1.2 Demi-lunes or semi-circular hoops.
View the document1.1.3 Katumani pitting technical description
View the document1.1.4 Permeable rock dams
View the document1.1.5 Contour stone bunding
View the document1.1.6 Tied contour ridges
View the document1.1.7 Fanya-juu terracing
View the document1.1.8 Flood harvesting using bunds
View the document1.1.9 Earthen bunds
View the document1.1.10 External catchments using contour ridging
View the document1.1.11 Sand abstraction technical description
View the document1.1.12 Lagoon-front hand-dug wells
View the document1.1.13 Sub-surface dams, small dams, and sand dams
View the document1.1.14 Cloud seeding
View the document1.1.15 Tidal irrigation
close this folder1.2 Water quality improvement technologies
View the document1.2.1 Artificial wetlands for wastewater treatment
close this folder1.3 Wastewater treatment technologies and reuse
View the document1.3.1 Wastewater reuse
close this folder1.4 Water conservation
View the document1.4.1 Conservation tillage
View the document1.4.2 Deficit irrigation
View the document1.4.3 Savanna wetland cultivation
View the document1.4.4 Plants for water conservation gardening
View the document1.4.5 Porous clay pots and pipes for small-scale irrigation
close this folder2. Domestic water supply
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close this folder2.1 Fresh water augmentation technologies
View the document2.1.1 Protected springs
View the document2.1.2 Rock and roof catchments
View the document2.1.3 Fog harvesting
View the document2.1.4 Groundwater abstraction in urban residential areas
View the document2.1.5 Groundwater abstraction using handpump-equipped wells
View the document2.1.6 Rope-washer pump
View the document2.1.7 Artificial groundwater recharge
View the document2.1.8 Well-tank borehole well
View the document2.1.9 Cisterns
View the document2.1.10 Palm petioles
close this folder2.2 Water quality improvement technologies
View the document2.2.1 Denitrification of groundwater
View the document2.2.2 Iron removal
View the document2.2.3 Use of natural plants
View the document2.2.4 In-stream water quality upgrading
close this folder2.3 Wastewater treatment technology and reuse
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View the document2.3.1 Direct reuse of treated municipal wastewater
View the document2.3.2 Indirect reuse
View the document2.3.3 Regeneration water
close this folder2.4 Water conservation
View the document2.4.1 Urban water conservation
close this folder3. Mining and industry
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close this folder3.1 Freshwater augmentation technologies
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View the document3.1.1 Groundwater harvesting
View the document3.1.2 Surface water harvesting
close this folder3.2 Water quality improvement technologies
View the document3.2.1 Electrodialysis
close this folder3.3 Wastewater treatment technologies and reuse
View the document3.3.1 Industrial water reuse
close this folder3.4 Water conservation
View the document3.4.1 Dry cooling at power stations
View the document3.4.2 Utilisation of seawater for power station cooling
close this folderPart C - Case studies
View the document4.1 Tied ridging - Domboshawa, Zimbabwe
View the document4.2 Freshwater augmentation - cloud seeding, Zimbabwe
View the document4.3 Tidal irrigation, the Gambia
View the document4.4 Spring protection - Mukono district, Uganda
View the document4.5 Water augmentation - Laikipia district, Kenya
View the document4.6 Recycled water - Achimota Brewery, Ghana
View the document4.7 Water recycling - Tarkwa gold fields, Ghana
close this folderPart D - Annexes
View the document1. List of abbreviations
View the document2. Table of conversion factors for metric and U.S. Customary Units
View the documentPart E - Institutional profiles