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close this bookRwanda - Health Sector Needs and Recommendations for the Transition Phase (Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, 1998, 39 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcronyms
close this folder1. Introduction
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View the document1.1. The historical context of Rwanda
close this folder2. Rwanda: the larger picture
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View the document2.1. War and insecurity
View the document2.2. Mass displacements in the region
View the document2.3. Food and malnutrition
View the document2.4. Poor human resource base
View the document2.5. Groups with special needs
View the document2.6. Emerging and re-emerging diseases
View the document2.7. Ownership of land and homes
close this folder3. Effects of international humanitarian aid on development
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View the document3.1. Food security and distribution
View the document3.2. Labour market distortions
close this folder4. Humanitarian relief and development: How and when could transition begin?
View the document4.1. Should humanitarian aid continue in Rwanda?
View the document4.2. Approaches to Transition
View the document4.3. Options for transition actions
close this folder5. Long term strategy
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View the document5.1. Agricultural sector
View the document5.2. Private sector
close this folder6. Health and humanitarian aid in Rwanda
View the document6.1. The health system in Rwanda
View the document6.2. Drag Supply
View the document6.3. Epidemiological profile
View the document6.4. Population and fertility
View the document6.5. Mental Health Care
close this folder7. Recommendations for humanitarian action and preparedness
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View the document7.1. Action in the Red Zone
View the document7.2. Humanitarian monitoring system
View the document7.3. Emergency food distribution
View the document7.4. Humanitarian targeting of vulnerable groups
View the document7.5. Continuity of access to drugs
View the document7.6. Preparedness for disease outbreaks
View the document7.7. Improved management of human resources
View the document7.8. Approaches to transition
View the document8. Conclusions and lessons learnt
View the documentBibliography
close this folderAnnexes
View the documentAnnex 1 - CRED Team members
View the documentAnnex 2 - List of people met in Rwanda
View the documentMaps

5.1. Agricultural sector

National income is almost exclusively based on the agricultural sector. Unemployment in this sector is very high due to overpopulation and scarcity of land. Almost 400 000 farmers (more than two million people) have less than 0,5 hectare land and live on mini-farms which is too small to generate enough harvest to feed an average family21.

21Formulation de la strate de dloppement agricole, RmMinagri, 1997 intensify the production.

A new strategy for the agricultural sector is developed within an overall macro-economic strategy plan. Some fundamental changes are foreseen, but will be very hard to implement. Following measures are planned - though subject to major discussions - to achieve a higher production levels:

· Improved land use by more appropriate division of land for cultivation or for other activities, including “villagisation” or regroupement of people into new villages.

· Increased use of fertilisers and the construction of terraces in order to

· Land ownership should be privatised, suspending the traditional heritage system (droit coutumi) and all land should be for sale on the market.

The main idea of the agricultural reform is to evolve from an individual and dispersed production to more collective and regrouped fanning in order to increase the agricultural production. This is an ambitious plan, not only due to cultural barriers but also given the high rate of natural increase of me population where by 2010 this sector will have to absorb 9 million people.

Another problem regarding the new policy is the lack of information towards the population. There is for example a huge resistance towards the politics of villagisation. Much of the villagisation depends on new constructions of homes which are often unsatisfactory. Many houses are too small for the average Rwandan family. There are no facilities for a kitchen, nor sanitation or water supply in the villages. Frequently, the housing is constructed in rigid, unnatural formations and at a distance from commercial centres, schools or water sources. Moreover, people are afraid to live isolated as a group since they are more vulnerable to be attacked. As a result, many housing blocks, built at high costs, remain unoccupied.