|Challenges and opportunities: policy options for the forestry sector in the Asia-Pacific region. (1997)|
|GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PATTERNS AND TRENDS 1970S-1990S|
Economic: The obvious economic trends have been the globalization of product markets, trade liberalization, (e.g. the establishment of the World Trade Organization). This has been accompanied by integration and greater international mobility of capital in global markets. These trends are in turn reflected in rapid expansion of industries, the financial-communications sector and agribusiness. Production of export crops and primary commodities has expanded in area and intensified (i.e. higher yields/hectare in existing areas).
Political: Deregulation; smaller governments; the expanding role of the private sector, and civil society, especially the non-governmental (voluntary) sector - privatization and devolution - have been the hallmarks of this period.
Environmental: Increasing environmental awareness, including biodiversity conservation and threats of global climate change, but also green consumerism sometimes also with emphasis on social issues. The moves towards, and then the consequences of, the UNCED conventions, especially the Convention on Biological Diversity, and the continuing debates about a legally-binding global Forests Convention, have heightened awareness of forestry issues world-wide. The debates of the Intergovernmental panel on Forests in 1995-97 builds upon a short but intense history of international forestry-environmental negotiations.