Cover Image
close this bookShort-term training programme on GIS (Geographic Information System) for fisheries (1993)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentObjective of the training programme
View the documentProgramme and Resource Persons
View the documentName of the Participants and their Organizations
View the documentInaugural Programme and Addresses
View the documentGIS for Fisheries - An introduction
View the documentFisheries Development Plan of Bangladesh
View the documentData Requirement for Inland Fisheries Planning and Development
View the documentPrinciples of Remote Sensing - Airborne and Satellite Remote Sensing
View the documentSatellite Data Processing and Image Analysis
View the documentFundamentals of GIS
View the documentApplication of Remote Sensing to Environment with Special Reference to Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture
View the documentApplication of Remote Sensing and GIS in Shrimp Farming Areas of Bangladesh
View the documentRemote Sensing Applications for Marine Fisheries Resources in Bangladesh
View the documentPond Concentration Studies in Bangladesh
View the documentInventory of Inland Waters (Based on Study of SPARRSO, 1984)
View the documentFormulation of Periodic Atlas of Structured Information of Fisheries Resources

Data Requirement for Inland Fisheries Planning and Development

Dr. A.K.M. Aminul Haque
Ex-Vice Chancellor of BAU

1. Fish is an aquatic vertebrate. Similarly, all other organisms of commercial importance (and therefore, of fisheries importance) like sponges, corals, shrimps, oysters, cephalopods, holothurians, sea weeds, etc., are all aquatic in their habitat.

Naturally, they get all their requirements of life - oxygen, food, shelter, etc. - from water.

Similarly, the parasites, the pathogens, and many of the predators, etc., of fishes are also aquatic.

2. Qualitative and quantitative changes in the. Aquatic environment are bound to affect this habitat - which in turn affect life-processes of fishes and all other fisheries organisms as alluded to above.

It follows, therefore, that by manipulating the factors in the aquatic environment it is possible to bring about qualitative and quantitative changes/improvements in the fisheries resources.

3. For development of fisheries of any geographical region, it is essential to have, as much as is possible under the prevailing situation, accurate information on all the physical, chemical and biological factors involved - both in space and in time - so as to be able to decide on the changes/manipulations needed to bring about improvements in the conditions.

4. Remote-sensing and other appropriate technologies including conventional methods in collaboration with Geographical Information System (GIS) may collect information, at predetermined regular intervals, on all physical, chemical, and biological parameters relevant to planning and development of inland fisheries of the geographical area concerned, and process the data to a usable form. It is hardly possible to make a list of all such parameters relevant to a complex subject like fisheries. However, an attempt is made here in the present paper to list some of the factors on which information is desirable for development of inland fisheries. The technologies to be applied may choose their areas of investigation from this list to prepare a data-bank for use by researchers.

5. Ponds

5.1. Physical factors

- Number of ponds - perennial, seasonal
- Size (area) of individual ponds - classification according to size
- Dimensions (NS X EW) of individual ponds

- configuration of bank (shore-line)
- gradient (of slope)
- soil type
- nature and extent of erosion, if any
- vegetation on banks - north, east, south, west
- depth of water at different times of the year - contour map
- outlets/inlets, if any
- Turbidity
- Temperature

- at surface at
- 2m depth
- at bottom

- Available transport facilities
- Railway tracks, highways in the vicinity

5.2 Chemical factors - seasonal variations

- Dissolved oxygen
- Dissolved carbondioxide
- Other gases
- Dissolved/suspended organic matters - kinds, quantity
- Dissolved/suspended inorganic matters - kinds, quantity
- pH

5.3 Biological factors - seasonal variations

- Vegetation types in the pond water

- emergent
- submergent
- floating

- Phytoplankton

- types
- number of different types per unit volume of water

- Zooplankton

- types
- number of different types per unit volume of water
- diurnal migration pattern

- Benthos

- types
- number of different types per unit volume of bottom soil

- Species composition of standing fish population - relative abundance of various species

- cultured fishes
- weed fishes - predatory fishes

- Crustacean population

- species composition

- Molluscan population

- species composition

5.4 Other factors

- Ownership pattern
- Management types

- private management

- single owner management
- multiple owner management

- government management
- NGO management
- combination

- Management problems, if any

- Fish culture practices, if any

- pre-stocking treatments, if any
- stocking pattern
- species combination
- sources of fry/fingerlings

- Uses other than fish culture

- irrigation
- washing
- bathing
- cattle bathing
- duck raising

6. Baors and beels (also swamps)

6.1 Physical factors

- Age
- History of development/evolution
- Size (area of water) of individual waterbody
- Map showing location and outline
- Soil types
- Nature and extent of erosion, if any
- Land vegetation on banks/surrounds
- Depth of water at different times of the year - contour map
- Outlets/inlets, if any
- Seasonal variation in

- turbidity
- temperature

- air
- water

- at surface
- at 2m depth
- at bottom

- diurnal variation

- Rainfall/precipitation

6.2 Chemical factors - diurnal and seasonal changes

- Dissolved oxygen

- Dissolved carbondioxide

- Other gases

- Dissolved/suspended organic matters - qualitative assessment, quantitative assessment

- Dissolved/suspended inorganic matters - qualitative assessment, quantitative assessment

- pH

6.3 Biological factors

- Aquatic vegetation types - relative abundance

- emergent
- submergent
- floating

- Phytoplankton

- types
- abundance
- distribution

- Zooplankton

- type
- abundance
- distribution
- diurnal migration pattern

- Benthos

- qualitative information
- quantitative information

- Species composition of standing fish population

- relative abundance of each species
- distribution in space

- Crustacean population

- species composition
- abundance

- Molluscan population

- species composition

- Avian population, seasonal pattern

- residents
- migrants
- feeding habits

6.4 Other factors

- Ownership pattern
- Management types

- private management

- single management
- joint management

- government management
- NGO management
- participatory management - New Fisheries Management Policy
- combination

- Management problems, if any

7. Reservoirs

Reservoirs are special type of lotic environment - transitional from riverine to mainly lacustrine - and hence deserve special consideration.

7.1 General considerations

- History of development

- history of the river concerned
- considerations leading to the construction of dam

- benefits anticipated

- soil types

- cross section at different points of the basin

- vegetation types before inundation on commissioning of project

- species composition
- density/distribution pattern of various species
- fate of the standing vegetation
- fish species of the erstwhile river/tributaries
- fisheries in the erstwhile river/tributaries
- concentration of human settlements in the valleys

7.2 Physical factors of the reservoir

- Geographical area covered by the reservoir

- at highest level of water
- at lowest level during dry season

- Total water area

- at highest level of water
- at lowest level during dry season

- Total catchment area

- Age since construction of dam

- Rainfall/precipitation, seasonal changes

- Seasonal changes in the discharge rate

- through spill-ways
- through turbines, if any
- total

- Nature and extent of erosion, if any

- wave action
- human interference
- other causes

- Shore vegetation types along the valleys

- Topography of the valleys

- Topography of the basin - contour map

- Seasonal variation in

- turbidity
- temperature

- air
- water

- Seasonal Variation in velocity of current

- at surface
- at 2m depth
- at bottom
- pattern of circulation
- upwelling, if any

7.3 Chemical factors

- Dissolved oxygen
- Dissolved carbondioxide
- Other gases
- Dissolved/suspended organic matter - qualitative assessment, quantitative assessment
- Dissolved/suspended inorganic matter - qualitative assessment, quantitative assessment
- pH

7.4 Biological factors

- Aquatic Vegetation types - relative abundance

- emergent
- submergent
- floating

- Phytoplankton

- types
- abundance
- distribution

- Zooplankton

- types
- abundance
- distribution
- diurnal migration pattern

- Benthos

- Distribution patten of various species at different depths

- qualitative information
- quantitative information
- seasonal variation

- Species composition of standing fish population

- relative abundance of different species
- distribution pattern of various species

- Aquatic/semi-aquatic mammalian population

- Crustacean population

- Species composition
- relative abundance
- distribution

- Molluscan population

- Species composition
- relative abundance
- distribution pattern

- Avian population, seasonal pattern

- residents
- migrants
- feeding habits

- Stocking data, if applicable

- species stocked
- number stocked - by species, by size-groups
- data(s) of stocking
- survival rate

- Harvesting data

- gears used
- species harvested-number in each size-group

- Mortality due to natural causes

- diseases
- parasites
- predators

7.5 Other factors

- Management pattern
- Management problems, if any

8. Rivers

8.1 Physical factors

- Origin

- History of changes, if any, in the course

- Age

- Division of basin, o morphological considerations, into segments

- Map showing location and course

- Whole river system including tributaries and distributors
- individual segments

- Soil type of different basins

- Cross section of different basins

- Nature and extent of erosion of banks, if any

- Depth of water at different times of the year

- Tributaries

- Distributors

- Seasonal variation in

- turbidity
- air temperature
- water temperature - at surface, at 2m depth, at bottom
- velocity of current - at surface, at 2m depth, at bottom

- Rainfall/precipitation

- Extent and condition of floodplains

8.2 Chemical factors

- Dissolved oxygen

- Dissolved carbondioxide

- Other gases

- Dissolved/suspended organic matter 0 qualitative assessment, quantitative assessment

- Dissolved/suspended inorganic matter - qualitative assessment, quantitative assessment

- PH

8.3 Biological factors

- Aquatic vegetation types

- emergent
- submergent
- floating

- Phytoplankton

- types
- relative abundance
- distribution

- Zooplankton

- types
- relative abundance
- distribution
- diurnal migration pattern

- Benthos

- qualitative information
- quantitative information

- Species composition of standing fish population

- relative abundance of each species
- distribution

- in space
- in time
- migration pattern of any fish species

- Crustacean population

- species composition
- relative abundance of different species
- distribution

- in space
- in time
- migration pattern, if any

- Molluscan population

- species composition
- relative abundance of different species
- distribution

- in space
- in time

- Avian population - seasonal pattern

- residents
- migrants
- feeding habits

- Mammalian population

- dolphins
- otters
- any other(s)

- Stocking data, if applicable

- species stocked
- date(s) of stocking
- number - by species, by size-groups
- survival rate

- Harvest data

- gears used
- number harvested - by species, by size-groups; by weight

- Mortality due to natural causes

- diseases
- parasites
- predators

8.4 Other factors

- Management pattern

- lease-based management
- new fisheries management policy
- participatory management

- Management problems, if any

9. Factors relevant to fisheries practices

9.1 Inland capture fisheries

- Life history of fishes

- commercial fishes
- weed fishes
- aquarium fishes
- others

- Life-history of non-piscine fisheries organisms

- Pollution status - pollutants

- Sediment transport

- Fish seed sources - finfishes, shellfishes

- natural sources
- hatcheries

- Hilsa fishery

- factors for migration
- responses to various stimuli - at different stages of life
- rheotactic responses
- chemotactic responses
- effect of barrages

- effect of other human interferences

- nets across river-mouths
- pollutants
- destruction of juveniles

- Pangasius fishery

- Masheer (Mahashole) fishery

- Impact of openwater stocking

- Impact of New Fisheries Management Policy

- Reservoir fishery reaction to transition from riverine to mainly lacustrine ecology

- Fish transport - fry/fingerling transport

- Fish marketing

- Estuarine fishery - management under Forestry Department versus management under Fishery Department

- Conservation and management - impact of participatory management practices

9.2 Inland culture fisheries

- Life - history of culturable fish species - breeding habits, - Induced breeding

- Food and feeding habits

- Soil-water interaction - fertilization

- Effect of various fertilizers

- Hatchery operations and management

- common problems

- Shrimp hatcheries - Penaeus, Macrobrachium

- Fish seed industry

- Fish-cum-duck farming

- Predatory and weed fishes - control measures

- Aquarium fishes - potential for export market

- Aquatic insects - control measures

- Fish food organisms - commercial production

- Feed formulation - for various stages of life-history of various culturable fish-species, supplemental feeding

- Stocking rates - intensive and semi-intensive culture practices

- Composite culture

- Aquatic weed control - mechanical, chemical, biological

- Transport of brood fishes

- Transport of fish seed

- Causes of mortality in transport operations Use and effect of various drugs

- fish toxicants - anaesthetics
- antiseptics
- antibiotics

- Culture of exotic fishes

- Culture of carnivorous fishes

- snakeheads
- climbing perch
- air breathers

- Fish pathology, fish parasitology - epizootic ulcerative syndrome

- Brackishwater ponds

- Water quality - salinity
- Soil quality
- Collection of seed from natural sources - effect on fish population in general

- Coastal aquaculture

- Remote-sensing and fisheries development potentials

10. An attempt has been made to indicate briefly areas where information is needed for meaningful fishery operations as well as for planning and development of inland fisheries of any geographical area. Use of satellite imageries, aerial photographs and other appropriate technologies along with conventional methods, in combination with Geographical Information System (GIS) have opened up a new vista of possibilities and can already provide dependable indications for identifying development potential of any sub-sector of fisheries and for selection of suitable sites for fisheries enterprises. A data-bank incorporating all needed information relevant to fisheries and aquaculture will be a handy - and essential - facility for planning and development of inland fisheries.