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close this bookFood Nutrition and Agriculture - 5/6 International Conference on Nutrition (1992)
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Books - Livres - Libros

Les besoins énergétiques de l'homme. Manuel à l'usage des planificateurs et des nutritionnistes

Sous la direction de W.P.T. James et E.C. Schofield, FAO, 1992.
Economica, Paris. 239 pages. ISBN 2-7178-2242-9. Prix: 185 FF.

La traduction en français de l'ouvrage Human energy requirements - a manual for planners and nutritionists, réalisée par la Division des politiques alimentaires et de la nutrition, est maintenant disponible.

La recherche sur les besoins énergétiques en physiologie humaine reste l'une des préoccupations majeures des nutritionnistes. En effet, déterminer les apports énergétiques conseillés tant au niveau individuel qu'au niveau d'une population est essentiel pour la mise en oeuvre d'une politique cohérente en planification alimentaire et nutritionnelle des pays. L'alimentation, par son apport énergétique en particulier, est au centre des préoccupations humaines. La FAO, qui, avec d'autres organisations des Nations Unies, s'intéresse à ce domaine depuis plus de 40 ans, a publié de nombreux rapports de consultations d'experts et autres comités ayant travaillé sur ce sujet; le dernier est le rapport conjoint FAO/OMS/UNU d'un groupe d'experts sur les Besoins énergétiques et besoins en protéines, publié en 1986 dans la série des Rapports techniques de l'OMS (n° 724). Dans ce rapport, l'approche scientifique, plus précise qu'auparavant, repose sur le métabolisme de base, l'activité physique et différents autres facteurs. L'application de cette approche apparaît complexe, et ce manuel sur les besoins énergétiques, résultat d'une collaboration fructueuse entre un groupe de consultants et le personnel de la FAO, traite des sujets identifiés lors d'une réunion entre experts et utilisateurs potentiels. Ce manuel comporte aussi un logiciel d'application pour le calcul des besoins énergétiques de populations en fonction de différents facteurs propres à ces populations. Le logiciel utilise Lotus 1-2-3 et est disponible sur demande à la Section distribution et ventes de la FAO.

L'ouvrage comporte huit chapitres, cinq annexes et un index qui permet de retrouver rapidement les sujets importants pour comprendre les procédures de calculs des besoins selon les recommandations du rapport de 1986. Le chapitre 1 est un aperçu général sur les besoins et recommandations énergétiques. Les trois chapitres suivants traitent des principes de l'équilibre énergétique (apport/dépense), des différents niveaux d'analyse qui permettent d'estimer les besoins (métabolisme de base, activités physiques) avec la méthode du quotient d'activité physique, et de l'impact de l'urbanisation et de la structure démographique pour la détermination des besoins de la population. Le chapitre 5 donne les allocations énergétiques en fonction de ces différentes hypothèses. Le chapitre 7 aborde les aspects de l'adaptation métabolique en cas de faibles apports énergétiques. Le dernier chapitre traite des applications spéciales telles que les calculs au niveau individuel ou dans l'aide alimentaire d'urgence. Les annexes présentent des données détaillées sur la démographie des Etats Membres de la FAO, sur les normes couramment utilisées pour les poids et les tailles, le coût énergétique des activités physiques par quotient croissant, par ordre alphabétique et par catégorie professionnelle.

La lecture de cet ouvrage, écrit dans un style simple et clair, est attrayante pour toute personne cherchant à comprendre le processus de calcul des besoins énergétiques tant au niveau d'une population qu'au niveau individuel, Les nombreux tableaux, figures et diagrammes permettent de bien appréhender les différents termes abordés dans ce manuel qui complète utilement le rapport sur les Besoins énergétiques et en protéines de 1986.

S. Chevassus
Nutritionniste, Service de la planification, de l'analyse et de l'évaluation nutritionnelles

Surimi technology

Tyre C. Lanier and Chong M. Lee, eds. 1992. Food Science and Technology Series No. 50. New York, Marcel Dekker. 544 pp. ISBN 0-8247-8470-7. Price US$ 150 (United States and Canada), US$ 172 (all other countries).

The Japanese have eaten foods based on surimi, a refined fish protein product, for centuries. They prepare many kinds of foods from surimi by adding different flavors and ingredients and cooking the mixture in different ways. More recently, a new type of surimi-based product has been created which has the appearance and taste of shellfish. The new-generation product, the so-called shellfish analogue, has not only gained popularity in Japan and Korea but has also become widely accepted by the Western world, with particular success in America. Production of these surimi-based products requires an understanding of the functional properties of surimi and other ingredients as raw materials, as well as a knowledge of the processing equipment needed and the production principles concerning the effects of processing on the surimi-based formulation.

The United States food industry was quick to adopt this technology and took major steps towards a leading role in production of surimi and surimi products. Other countries are currently developing surimi industries in order to capitalize better on their fishery stocks. Along with rapid industrial development, significant advancements have been made worldwide in the scientific understanding of the technologies involved in the manufacturing of these products.

This book assembles the most current and scientifically sound information on the topic of surimi technology available anywhere. Several chapters or sets of associated chapters are written by both Western and Japanese experts on various topics of this revolutionary approach to the utilization of animal and muscle tissue as a food or food ingredient.

This book is intended to be of value chiefly to food scientists and processors, but also to curious consumers and interested investors. Readers will be able to acquire in-depth information regarding the manufacturing process for both existing and potentially interesting forms of surimi and Surimi-based products, keys to the improvement of existing processing, packaging and quality control systems for these products and a fundamental understanding of the properties of surimi as a food ingredient. Other chapters provide information on the historical development of the technology and the regulatory environment of Surimi-based foods. Those involved with food formulation will find the chapters on ingredient technology, flavor technology and the cryostabilization of surimi by additives to be of interest.

In view of the increased trade and consumption of surimi worldwide, the Codex Alimentarius has commenced the elaboration of a Code of Practice for surimi in order to protect consumers and encourage international trade. In this context, this book is most welcome for the quality of information presented, facilitating the development of better technology for safe and high-quality products.

E. Casadei
Food Standards Officer, Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme

For earth's sake

A report from the Commission on Developing Countries and Global Change. 1992. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, IDRC vii + 145 pp.

The establishment of the Commission on Developing Countries and Global Change, with support from the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and the Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries (SAREC), was based on three key propositions.

· global environmental problems have potentially catastrophic implications for many developing countries;

· Third World perspectives must be integrated into the international agenda on global environmental change;

· the social dimension of these issues must be understood and resolved.

The commission examined what could be done to enhance the relevance of research on global change in relation to the needs and interest of the developing countries. The particular aim of the commission was to present an alternative Southern perspective on global environmental and social issues and, broadly speaking, to raise the profile of this perspective within the research community worldwide.

The Commission's final report, presented in this book, consists of three major parts.

Part I provides a Southern perspective on the global environment/development crisis and on the global- and national-level causes of this crisis. The elements of an equitable approach to sustainability are proposed, forming the foundation of a research agenda.

Part II looks at the roles, problems and potential of social research in relation to environment/development issues, including challenges specific to the South.

Part III presents the research agenda itself, addressing the basic principles for guiding environment/development research, specific research topics and the institutional and training requirements that would emerge from the identified research needs.

The book emphasizes the need not only for social science research on environmental issues, but also for the integration of social dimensions within environmental research. For this reason the discussion focuses on social science research on environment/development issues and the investigators are referred to as researchers on social issues.

This book proposes a uniquely Southern agenda for research into global environmental change It rejects the idea that we can resolve our ecological problems by simple adjustment of the economic system. Rather, it asserts that sustainable development requires further fundamental changes The authors have dared to envision a different future. Even more important, they have proposed ways to realize this future that could simultaneously satisfy the demands of equity, economy and ecology.

E. Casadei
Food Standards Officer, Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme

Where there is no doctor: a village health care handbook. New revised edition

David Werner with Carol Thurman and Jane Maxwell 1992 Palo Alto, CA, USA, Hesperian Foundation 512 pp. ISBN 0-942364-15-5. Price US$ 13, special prices for bulk orders and developing countries.

A health care manual first written for a rural community in Mexico and printed 15 years ago. Where there is no doctor has become widely used and is distributed throughout the world Recently, the Hesperian Foundation expanded and updated the English version of this much needed, affordable guide.

Among the many topics covered in the new text are traditional medicines and beliefs, use and misuse of modern medicines and techniques, methods to examine sick persons and to diagnose and treat common illnesses, first aid; nutrition, sanitation; family planning, and prevention of illness, New topics include acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases, drug addiction and pesticide protection Special emphasis is given to mothers, children and the elderly.

This comprehensive reference is not merely a practical source of medical information. The authors provide thoughtful advice on sharing information and encouraging community participation. Furthermore, they emphasize the importance of individuals taking greater responsibility for their health. These approaches are consistent with current recommendations of UN agencies.

While individual care is the focus of the book, the authors also stress that improved health requires more equitable distribution of resources. Indeed, without access to safe water and food, apart from medical supplies, even the low-cost, community-based interventions they recommend will be seriously hampered. However, the provision or essential goods is determined by economic growth as well as distribution, and this is not mentioned in the text.

Intended for community health workers, teachers and care providers in remote areas, Where there Is no doctor makes medical knowledge more accessible through simple language and drawings. More techniques for persons with low literacy skills would give the book even wider application. Given the international audience for this guide, future editions should include illustrations and examples drawn from different regions. Despite some shortcomings. David Werner and his colleagues have provided a useful tool in the effort to extend care to remote communities and improve health among rural people.

J. Albert
Nutrition Officer/Technical Editor, Food Policy and Nutrition Division

Nutrition communications in vitamin A programs: a resource book

International Vitamin A Consultative Group (IVACG). 1992. 124 pp. ISBN 0-944398-08-1. Single copies free of charge to developing countries, US$ 3.50 to other nations. IVACG Secretariat. The Nutrition Foundation, Inc. 1126 Sixteenth Street NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA.

In 1975, the International Vitamin A Consultative Group (IVACG) was established to guide international activities for reducing vitamin A deficiency, which affects millions of children in many developing countries. Combating this micronutrient deficiency requires behavioural changes and new practices, as well as increased access to foods rich in vitamin A. Nutrition education is a direct intervention to induce changes in individual behaviour and also enhances other types of interventions to reduce nutritional problems.

To facilitate the efforts to eliminate vitamin A deficiency by the year 2000, the IVACG Communication/Education Task Force has produced an attractive, clear and concise resource book illustrated by many colorful photographs for use by professionals in government, non-governmental organizations and other agencies. Nutrition communications in vitamin A programs reflects the experiences of IVACG task force members as well as those of a wide variety of non-governmental organizations.

In reviewing concepts of nutrition education and communication and providing examples of programmes to control and prevent vitamin A deficiency, the authors provide an overview of the processes, knowledge and techniques required for successful intervention, A summary of basic methodological issues associated with the planning, development and implementation of nutrition communication programmes is given in Part 1, "Recalling the basics". Such topics as "Conducting the field investigation"; "Using creativity to deliver the message"; "Protesting the materials"; "Launching, monitoring, and evaluating the program"; and "Finding communication specialists" are included in this section.

Information on the selection of creative materials and descriptions of seven nutrition communication efforts, as well as a list of recommended readings, are provided in Part 2, "Learning from field experience". In this section, the main part of the publication, suggestions and techniques for communicating nutrition messages to the appropriate audience are offered. Examples of printed materials, radio and television advertisement scripts, slide presentations, songs and group interaction tools are given to inspire creative approaches to combating vitamin A deficiency. Actual programmes from Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Indonesia, Mauritania. Nepal and Thailand are described and assessed.

Those who work locally, nationally or internationally in the design of nutrition communication programmes will find Nutrition communications in vitamin A programs a useful, non-technical source of information to aid in the creation of innovative activities.

J. Albert
Nutrition Officer/Technical Editor, Food Policy and Nutrition Division