|FAO manual on the submission and evaluation of pesticide residues data for the estimation of maximum residue levels in food and feed (1997)|
|2. SELECTION OF COMPOUNDS FOR EVALUATION|
The Secretariat of the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme regularly invites member countries of CAC to propose pesticides to be added to the Codex Priority List of Pesticides for subsequent recommendation to the JMPR for evaluation. The proposals are considered by CCPR at the successive meeting. Based on the information received, CCPR prepares the priority list of pesticides and the tentative lists of compounds to be considered by the JMPR at its subsequent meetings.
The procedure has recently been described in the Circular of Codex Secretariat, CL 1996/35-PR. The procedure to be followed when proposing pesticides for inclusion in the Codex Priority List is given below. The form in which information is to be provided is given in Appendix VIII.
1. Criteria for Inclusion of Compounds in the Priority List
Before a pesticide can be considered for the Priority List it:
(a) must be available for use as a commercial product; and
(b) must not have been already accepted for consideration.
To meet the criteria for inclusion in the priority list, the use of the pesticide must: give rise to residues in or on a food or feed commodity moving in international trade whose presence is (or may be) a matter of public health concern and/or create (or have the potential to create) problems in international trade.
2. Criteria for Selecting Food Commodities for which Codex MRLs or EMRLs should be Established
The commodity for which the establishment of a Codex MRL or EMRL is sought should:
(a) form a component of international trade;
(b) represent a significant proportion of the diet; and
(c) contain pesticide residues as evidenced in monitoring programmes.
3. Procedures to be followed for Commodity/Pesticide Combinations which meet the Selection Criteria
Governments are recommended to:
check if the pesticide is already in the Codex system.
NOTE: Pesticide/commodity combinations which are already included in the Codex system or under consideration are found in a working document prepared for and used as a basis of discussion by each Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues. Consult the most current revision of the document to see whether or not a given pesticide has already been considered.
If "YES", - proceed to section (b) below,
If "NO ", - proceed as follows in (a):
(i) consult the manufacturer(s) regarding the existence of sufficient toxicological, residue and critical supporting data and confirm that the manufacturer(s) would be willing to submit data to the JMPR, and in which year, and
(ii) submit the information to the person designated by the CCPR using the form given in Appendix VIII.
(b) where the pesticide has already been evaluated by the JMPR and MRLs, ERLs or GLs have been established, two situations may arise:
(i) interest exists in proposing MRLs for a new commodity. Consult the most recent working document containing all MRLs to ensure that MRLs have not already been established or considered for the commodity/pesticide combination. Where interest exists in developing data for a new commodity, governments are urged to discuss with industry the possibility of collaborative programmes, e.g., manufacturers may be willing to analyse samples from supervised residue trials conducted in accordance with FAO Guidelines on Pesticide Residue Trials to Provide Data for the Registration of Pesticides and for the Establishment of Maximum Residue Limits. Proposals for new commodity/pesticide combinations and new residue data may be submitted directly to the FAO Joint Secretary of the JMPR without the need for submissions according to Appendix VIII, as described in (a) above.
(ii) in those cases where additional toxicological data have become available, governments may wish to propose a pesticide for re-evaluation. The form given in Appendix VIII should be used for this purpose. Where a serious public health concern exists in relation to a particular pesticide, governments should notify the WHO Joint Secretary of the JMPR promptly and provide appropriate data.
4. Copies of Correspondence
All communications to the various persons mentioned above should be copied to the Chairman of the CCPR. Communications on 3(a) and 3(b) above should also be copied to the designated person without enclosing the detailed toxicological or residue data.
5. Data Deadline
The above procedures relate mainly to the establishment of Codex Priority Lists. Once the agenda of the JMPR has been agreed, the Secretariat of the JMPR requests that detailed residue and toxicological data be submitted by a stated deadline. Normally directories or lists of studies to be submitted to the FAO Panel are required by 30 November of the year before the scheduled review. The actual data submissions and working paper are expected no later than 28 February of the year of the scheduled FAO Panel review. Less substantial submissions to support FAO Panel consideration of questions from a CCPR meeting may normally be accepted by 31 May of the year in which the issue will be considered. The agreed Priority Lists indicating the pesticides scheduled to be evaluated by the JMPR are attached to the Reports of the Sessions of the CCPR and distributed to Member Countries.
6. Industry Contact Points
Further information about industry contact points on specific chemicals is available from the Technical Director of Global Crop Protection Federation (formerly GIFAP) 25, Avenue de Beaulieu, Box 25, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
Since the use conditions of the compounds may change with time, the Codex MRLs established several years ago may not reflect current use patterns. Furthermore, some of the old toxicological studies and residue trials may not meet the current standards. Within the CCPR, and also within the JMPR, there has been concern with respect to maintaining CXLs that may no longer reflect the current information. Consequently, the periodic review of old compounds has been initiated by the CCPR and the periodic review procedure has been agreed (Appendix IV).
After a compound has been evaluated by the JMPR, changes in the authorised uses may occur or new information on the properties of the pesticide may become available which affect the recommended MRLs or require the estimation of new maximum residue levels for the additional commodities.
Furthermore, the CCPR may refer certain recommendations back to the JMPR for clarification or reconsideration in the light of the comments received from member countries.
In both cases the compound is re-evaluated by the JMPR at subsequent meetings.