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close this bookStrategies for market orientation of small scale milk producers and their organisations. Proceedings of a worshop held at Mogororo Hotel, Mogororo, Tanzania, 20-24 March 1995. (1995)
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View the documentPreface
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close this folderOpening session
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View the documentAn opening speech by the Hon. Frederick T. Sumaye, (MP) Minister of Agriculture, at the FAO sponsored
close this folderMarket orientation of small scale milk producers. Background and global issues
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View the document1. Introduction
View the document2. Urbanisation and economic growth
View the document3. Demand and market - the link between producer and consumer
View the document5. How to promote a market oriented development - of the very complex dairy sector?
close this folderSession 2: Production of marketable milk
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close this folderMilk supply to urban centres in Tanzania with particular reference to the city of Dar Es Salaam
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View the document1. Introduction
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View the document3. Background of dairy industry development in Tanzania
View the document4. The milk supply situation in Tanzania: The facts.
View the document5. Milk supply and consumption in Dar es Salaam
View the document6. Linking producer and consumer
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close this folderDairy industry in Tanzania and the prospect for small scale milk producers
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View the document3. Cattle herd composition and geographical distribution
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View the document5. Milk marketing channels in Tanzania
View the document6. Temporal and spatial analysis of milk price in Tanzania
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close this folderDairy production system in Ethiopia
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close this folderELCT - Promotion of dairy farming by heifer distribution in Tanzania
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View the document3. Objectives of the dairy farming project:
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close this folderLessons learnt from TechnoServe's experience with small scale milk processing in Tanzania.
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close this folderCredit facilities and heifer supply within the Kagera livestock development programme - Tanzania
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View the document2. Smallholder dairy farming in Kagera
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close this folderProduction of marketable milk in the sub-humid tropics: Experiences, lessons and technologies from coastal Kenya.
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close this folderSession 3: Producer organisations.
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close this folderMilk production and marketing in Tanga Region: Efficiency of farmer co-operatives versus private sector1
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close this folderPrivatisation and livestock owners organisation in Kagera
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close this folderMilk producers role, needs and response to market demands and conditions in Zanzibar.
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close this folderMilk producer marketing groups in Uganda
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close this folderMilk marketing and processing options for smallholder dairy co-operative organisations: The case of Serengeti and Mwakaleli dairy co-operatives in Tanzania.
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View the document2. The Serengeti dairy co-operative society, Bunda district
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close this folderGroup formation and organisation for small scale milk producer under Jinja Heifer project
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close this folderSession 4: Milk processing requirements
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close this folderThe role of cultured milk products in developing countries
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View the document1. Evolution of dairy development in warm countries.
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close this folderMilk processing requirements for satisfying the demand for milk in Malawi
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View the documentParastatal processing
View the documentTraditional processing methods and their potential for improvements and commercialisation
View the documentSanitary and hygienic related issues in milk marketing.
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close this folderMilk processing requirements for satisfying the demand for various dairy products in Tanzania
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close this folderPersonal experiences with the promotion of milk processing in developing countries
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View the document1. Initial of dairy development in Nepal, 1952-1964.
View the document2. Dairy development in Madagascar, 1964-1974.
View the document3. Training and extension in the department of food technology & applied human nutrition (DFTN) at the university of Nairobi, 1974-1989.
View the document4. Experiences in South America, 1992 and 1994.
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close this folderSession 5: Comparative evaluation of dairy marketing systems.
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close this folderMarket policy and market development: A comparison of dairy product consumption in Mombasa, Kenya and Dar-Es-salaam, Tanzania
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View the documentIntroduction
View the documentCoastal sub-humid East Africa: Potential and limitations of a new dairy Hinterland
View the documentA tale of two cities: Dairy consumption in Mombasa, Kenya and Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania
View the documentThe policy environment: Framework for market development
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View the documentComparison of Mombasa and Dar-es-Salaam dairy markets
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close this folderTrends in milk marketing for small scale producers in Zambia
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close this folderImpact of marketing liberalization on dairy marketing and the dairy marketing system in Kenya
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View the documentI: Background
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View the documentIll: Dairy marketing system in Kenya
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close this folderCompetitive performance of formal and informal milk marketing channels in Northern Tanzania: The case of Hai district
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View the documentIntroduction
View the documentFormal and informal marketing channels in the marketing system for milk in Hai district
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View the documentResults and discussion
View the documentProducer prices
View the documentTimeliness in effecting payments to producers
View the documentConsumer prices
View the documentMarketing costs and margins
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close this folderAlternatives to a parastatal marketing monopoly
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View the document1.0 Introduction
View the document2.0 History of the dairy industry in Tanzania
View the document3.0 Present demand of supply of milk and milk products.
View the document4.0 Policy on milk marketing
View the document5.0 The performance of TDL
View the document6.0 Current milk marketing systems in Tanzania
View the document7.0 Recommended alternative to monopoly milk marketing
View the document8.0 The role of ministry of agriculture
View the document9.0 Conclusion
View the documentMilk marketing in the Tanzania's changing environment: Regulatory perspective of the dairy industry and the role of marketing orders and regulations
close this folderDairying in southern highlands of Tanzania: Marketing problems prospects
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View the documentOpportunities:
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close this folderSummary of plenary discussion on group presentations
View the documentA. Production of marketable milk
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View the documentNames of FAO participants at Morogoro Hotel 20.3.95

3.0 Present demand of supply of milk and milk products.

Tanzania is far from self sufficient in milk and milk products. In most parts of the country supplies of liquid milk and manufactured dairy products are insufficient to meet consumers demand. This shortfall is most significant in the urban areas, where there is a growing demand from rising populations for dairy products. However, per capital consumption differ from region to region as shown in Table 1.

Data on milk consumption in the rural and urban markets are inadequate and so accurate demand projections have been difficult to establish. Therefore current consumption levels and the potentials for market expansion of milk and milk products can only be estimated. However, it is clear from past experience and from various house-hold budget surveys of 1984 and 1993; that her is a large unsatisfied demand for dairy products both in urban and parts of rural areas. Despite the large number of cattle in Tanzania, production of milk and milk products has not satisfied the demand. Particularly in the urban market. By 1970 the traditional livestock sector commercial sector produced 22.9 million litres of milk (Shayo et at 1982). Estimated national milk consumption levels of milk 1981 litres by 1990 after the World Bank supported dairy project - IDA Credit 580 TA completion. This could have raised the per capital consumption of milk from 22.4 to 25 litres. The general performance of the dairy industry has been not encouraging despite the Government efforts to be self sufficiency in milk supply.

Milk production, collection and marketing

Milk production trend

The livestock development sub-division and the dairy parastatal companies in Tanzania responsible for milk production, processing and marketing have experienced serious problems in conducting their business leading to decline in their performance and finally ending into liquidity problems.

Despite the large number of cattle in Tanzania, production of milk and milk products has not satisfied the demand, particularly in the urban market. Estimated national milk production and consumption levels for the past 20 years in Tanzania is as shown by the Table 2 below.

Several studies by the Household Budget Survey have indicated that milk and milk products were not sufficient to meet the local demand and the Government has been spending a great proportion of the scarce foreign exchange in importing dairy products to bridge the gap between demand and supply.

Table 2: Milk production and consumption trend in Tanzania

YEAR

POPULATION (MILLION)

MILK PRODUCTION (MILL. LITRES)

PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION (LITRES)

1970/71

13.3

303

22.9

1977/78

16.3

334

20.5

1981/82

17.5

391

22.4

1985/86

21.7

442

20.4

1988/89

23.4

258

20.5

1989/90

24.2

490

20.4

1990/91

25.2

500

19.8

1991/92

25.9

525

20.3

1992/93

26.6

585

21.0

1993/94

27.3

555

21.3

Source:

1. Livestock Development Program 1989
2. MALD - Budget Speech 1987/86 - 1993/94
3. National Food Strategy 1985.

3.2. Milk collection

Most of the milk produced in the country is consumed at the farm level or sold to neighbors. The government's policy is however, to attempt to channel surplus milk to dairy plants for commercial processing with a view to supply urban markets with hygienic milk and milk products, at the required standard.

Rural Milk collection had been organized by the TDL. A network of collection routes on the village feeder roads has been established by each plant, these routes on the village feeder roads has been established by each plant, these routes had collection centers equipped with cooling facilities which were provided and operated by Tanzania Dairy Limited (TDL). In addition, a number of producers deliver their milk directly to the processing plants, earning a collection margin.


Milk collection and processing is carried out by seven processing plants with total installed capacity of 309,000 litres per day. However, other small processing plants are undertaken by other parastatals and private companies. The rural performance of milk collection has been poor as indicated on table below.