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close this bookPesticide residues in Food - 1996. Report sponsored jointly by FAO and WHO. (FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper - 140) (1997)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPARTICIPANTS
View the documentABBREVIATIONS WHICH MAY BE USED
View the document1. INTRODUCTION
Open this folder and view contents2. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
Open this folder and view contents3. SPECIFIC PROBLEMS
Open this folder and view contents4. EVALUATION OF DATA FOR ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE FOR HUMANS, SUPERVISED TRIALS MEDIAN RESIDUE LEVELS1 AND MAXIMUM RESIDUE LIMITS2
View the document5. RECOMMENDATIONS
Open this folder and view contents6. FUTURE WORK
View the document7. REFERENCES
View the documentCORRECTIONS TO REPORT OF 1995 JMPR
View the documentANNEX I: ADIs, MRLs and STMRs
View the documentANNEX II Index of reports and evaluations
View the documentANNEX III - Intake predictions
View the documentANNEX IV: Report of Workshop on Data Evaluation

ABBREVIATIONS WHICH MAY BE USED

Ache

acetylcholinesterase

ADI

acceptable daily intake

AFI(D)

alkali flame-ionization (detector)

ai

active ingredient

ALAT

alanine aminotransferase

approx.

approximate

ASAT

aspartate aminotransferase



BBA

Biologische Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft

bw (not b.w.)

body weight



c

centi- (x 10-2)

CA

Chemical Abstracts

CAS

Chemical Abstracts Services

CCN

Codex Classification Number (this may refer to classification numbers for compounds or for commodities).

CCPR

Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues

ChE

cholinesterase

CNS

central nervous system

cv

coefficient of variation

CXL

Codex Maximum Residue Limit (Codex MRL). See MRL.



DFG

Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft

DL

racemic (optical configuration, a mixture of dextro- and laevo-)

DP

dustable powder

DS

powder for dry seed treatment



EBDC

ethylenebis (dithiocarbamate)

EC

(1) emulsifiable concentrate


(2) electron-capture [chromatographic detector]

ECD

electron-capture detector

EMDI

estimated maximum daily intake

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

ERL

extraneous residue limit

ETU

ethylenethiourea



F1

filial generation, first

F2

filial generation, second

f.p.

freezing point

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

FID

flame-ionization detector

FPD

flame-photometric detector



g (not gm)

gram

mg

microgram

GAP

good agricultural practice(s)

GC-MS

gas chromatography - mass spectrometry

G.I.

gastrointestinal

GL

guideline level

GLC

gas-liquid chromatography

GLP

Good Laboratory Practice

GPC

gel-permeation chromatography

GSH

glutathione



h (not hr)

hour(s)

ha

hectare

Hb

haemoglobin

hl

hectolitre

HPLC

high-performance liquid chromatography

HPLC-MS

high-performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry



IBT

Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories

i.d.

internal diameter

i.m.

intramuscular

i.p.

intraperitoneal

IPCS

International Programme on Chemical Safety

IR

infrared

IRDC

International Research and Development Corporation (Mattawan, Michigan, USA)

i.v.

intravenous



JMPR

Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (Joint Meeting of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues) in Food and the Environment and the WHO Core Assessment Group



LC

liquid chromatography

LC50

lethal concentration, 50%

LC-MS

liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry

LD50

lethal dose, median

LOAEL

lowest observed adverse effect level

LOD

limit of determination (see also "*" at the end of the Table)

LSC

liquid scintillation counting or counter



MFO

mixed function oxidase

mm

micrometre (micron)

min

minute(s)

MLD

minimum lethal dose

M

molar

mo (not mth.)

month(s)

MRL

Maximum Residue Limit. MRLs include draft MRLs and Codex MRLs (CXLs). The MRLs recommended by the JMPR on the basis of its estimates of maximum residue levels enter the Codex procedure as draft MRLs. They become Codex MRLs when they have passed through the procedure and have been adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission.

MS

mass spectrometry

MTD

maximum tolerated dose



n

normal (defining isomeric configuration)

NCI

National Cancer Institute (United States)

NMR

nuclear magnetic resonance

NOAEL

no-observed-adverse-effect level

NOEL

no-observed-effect level

NP(D)

nitrogen-phosphorus (detector)

NTE

neuropathy target esterase



OP

organophosphorus pesticide



PHI

pre-harvest interval

ppm

parts per million. (Used only with reference to the concentration of a pesticide in an experimental diet. In all other contexts the terms mg/kg or mg/l are used).

PT

prothrombin time

PTDI

provisional tolerable daily intake. (See 1994 report, Section 2.3, for explanation)

PTT

partial thromboplastin time

PTU

propylenethiourea



RBC

red blood cell



s.c.

subcutaneous

SC

suspension concentrate (= flowable concentrate)

SD

standard deviation

SE

standard error

SG

water-soluble granule

SL

soluble concentrate

SP

water-soluble powder

sp./spp.

species (only after a generic name)

sp gr (not sp. gr.)

specific gravity

STMR

supervised trials median residue



t

tonne (metric ton)

T3

tri-iodothyronine

T4

thyroxine

TADI

Temporary Acceptable Daily Intake

tert

tertiary (in a chemical name)

TLC

thin-layer chromatography

TMDI

theoretical maximum daily intake

TMRL

Temporary Maximum Residue Limit

TPTA

triphenyltin acetate

TPTH

triphenyltin hydroxide

TSH

thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin)



UDMH

1,1-dimethylhydrazine (unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine)

USEPA

United States Environmental Protection Agency

USFDA

United States Food and Drug Administration

UV

ultraviolet



v/v

volume ratio (volume per volume)



WG

water-dispersible granule

WHO

World Health Organization

WP

wettable powder

wt/vol

weight per volume

w/w

weight ratio (weight per weight)



<

less than

£

less than or equal to

>

greater than

³

greater than or equal to

*

(following residue levels, e.g. 0.01* mg/kg): level at or about the limit of determination