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close this bookStrategies for market orientation of small scale milk producers and their organisations. Proceedings of a worshop held at Mogororo Hotel, Mogororo, Tanzania, 20-24 March 1995. (1995)
close this folderSession 5: Comparative evaluation of dairy marketing systems.
close this folderMarket policy and market development: A comparison of dairy product consumption in Mombasa, Kenya and Dar-Es-salaam, Tanzania
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentCoastal sub-humid East Africa: Potential and limitations of a new dairy Hinterland
View the documentA tale of two cities: Dairy consumption in Mombasa, Kenya and Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania
View the documentThe policy environment: Framework for market development
View the documentKenya and Mombasa
View the documentComparison of Mombasa and Dar-es-Salaam dairy markets
View the documentConclusion: Dairy market development strategies and institutional support
View the documentReferences


Abbott, J. (ed) 1993. Agricultural and Food Marketing in Developing Countries: Selected Readings. Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation/Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau: Wageningen, Netherlands/Oxon, United Kingdom.

Auerbock, R.M., C. Guggenberger and P. Praz. 1993. Promotion of Fresh Milk Production in Dar-es-Salaam and Coast Regions. Project proposal for cooperation between Tanzania and Austria. Austrovieh-Biomerx GmbH: Vienna.

Bryceson, D.F. 1987. "A Century of Food Supply in Dar-es-Salaam: From Sumptuous Suppers for the Sultan to Maize Meal for a Million". In: Feeding African Cities. J.I. Guyer (ed). International African Institute/Indiana University Press: London, U.K./Bloomington, USA.

Commonwealth Secretariat. 1992. Review of Dairy Development Initiatives in Africa. In: Proceedings of a Policy Workshop held in Arusha, Tanzania, 29 July - 1 August 1991. Food Production and Rural Development Division, Commonwealth Secretariat: London.

Government of the Republic of Kenya. 1994. Sessional Paper No. 2 of 1994 on National Food Policy. Ministry of Planning: Nairobi.

Jaetzold, R. and H. Schmidt. 1983. Farm Management Handbook of Kenya. Vol. II. Natural Conditions and Farm Management Information. Vol. II/C (East Kenya). Farm Management Branch, Ministry of Agriculture, Nairobi, Kenya.

International Bank for, Reconstruction and Development. 1992. Social Indicators of Development, 1991-92. John Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.

Mullins, G., B. Rey, S. Nokoe and B. Shapiro. 1994. A Research Methodology for Characterising Dairy Product Consumption Systems. Market-Oriented Smallholder Dairying Research Working Document No. 2. ILCA: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Mullins, G. 1994. Kenya Agriculture in the 21st century: Peri-urban Dairying Presents New Opportunities for Coast Farmers. Kenya Farmer. 63 (June). Agricultural Society of Kenya: Nairobi.

Mullins, G. 1992. Dairy production, marketing and consumption in coastal Kenya. In: Proceedings of the All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture, 23-27 November, 1992, Nairobi, Kenya.

Mullins, G. and W. Thorpe. 1992. "Implications of Market Organization and Marketing Policy for Farming Systems Adaptation and Sustainability: the Case of Smallholder Dairying in Coastal Lowland Kenya". In: Proceedings of the 12th Annual Farming Systems Symposium, 13-18 September 1992, Association for Farming Systems Research-Extension, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.

Rey, B., W. Thorpe, J. Smith, B. Shapiro, P. Osuji, G. Mullins, and K. Agyemang. 1993. Improvement of Dairy Production to Satisfy the Growing Consumer Demand in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Conceptual Framework for Research. Market-Oriented Smallholder Dairying Research Working Document No. 1. ILCA: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Thorpe, W., S.H Maloo, R.W. Muinga, G. Mullins, J.G. Mureithi, M. Njunie and A. Ramadhan. 1995. "Production of Marketable Milk in the Sub-humid Tropics: Experiences, Lessons and Technologies from Coastal Kenya". Paper presented at the FAO-sponsored workshop on: Strategies for Market Orientation of Small Scale Milk Producers and Their Organizations, Sokoine University of Agriculture, 20-24 March 1994, Morogoro, Tanzania.

Thorpe, W., G. Mullins, F. Chabari, S. Maloo, R. Muinga, A. Mukhebi, J. Mureithi, E. Mussukuya, R. Nyam baka, M. ole Maki, L. Otieno, B. Perry, E. Rugema, and E. Wekesa. 1991. "Smallholder Dairy Cattle Production in Coastal Kenya: Resource Base Assessment and Constraint Identification". In: Animal Production in Developing Countries, Proceedings of a meeting held 2-4 September 1991 at Ashford, U.K. British Society of Animal Production, Penicuik, Scotland, U.K.

Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development. 1992. Assessment of Animal Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. Winrock: Morrilton, Arkansas.


Q. MR. I. Rutamu

Although Mombasa consumers indicated preference of raw milk, actual consumption was higher for Pasteurised milk. Is this not influenced by commercial farmers like Kilifi plantation who find it technically better to sell pasteurised milk?


Pasteurisation is done to meet standard hygienic conditions. However the amount of milk supplied by Kilifi plantation is quite low compared to reconstituted milk supplied by ICCC.

Q. Dr. R.L. Kurwijila

It is not clear to me how you define regulated and unregulated market as I fail to see why pasteurized milk being sold in Dar es Salaam belongs to the unregulated market. Did you use the source or marketing channel in your definition?


That is a tricky aspect of milk market definition where to draw the line between regulated and unregulated, We looked at the source of milk i.e licensed processors vs unlicensed processors right through to licensed and unlicensed retailers. The latter constitute the unregulated market even if they are marketing pasteurised milk from TDL.

Q. A.A. Okwenye

a) Why do consumers prefer raw milk to pasteurized milk according to the study?
b) Would you recommend using of restrictions on sale of raw milk in Mombasa.


a) They think raw milk has higher fat content, better flavour than pasteurized milk which is reconstituted.


b) Yes, provided the legal requirements are met.

Q. Dr. De Wolf

What is the percentage of house holds in Mombasa consuming milk.


In Dar es salaam about 30% of household consume milk and in Mombasa about 99% house holds consume milk.

Q. G. Burrell

Please clarify on the sample of Dar es Salaam households since Table 2 implies that per capita consumption of 0.27 l/day in a population of 2,000,000 implies daily consumption of litres 500,000 per day which contradicts other figures provided in this Workshop.


The sample methodology was explained and it is recognised that it was not possible to obtain a representative sample. The table refers only households that consume milk regularly and these probably only represent 30% of households which would then imply a much lower overall consumption figure.

Q. W. Schulthess

A world average producer price of 28 US cents has been mentioned. Is it not dangerous to mention a world average considering the big variations 10 US cents and 80 US cents


28 US cents is a very recent average cited by US Department of Agriculture deducting subsidies in various countries.

Q. Tsehay Redda

The information/data collected under the title raw milk also include the raw milk supply produced by the Massai farmer. The question is asked to have a clear vision on the information gathered.


None of the consumers are taking raw milk from the Masai farmer as they deliver their milk to other collection point, Chalinze.