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close this bookRenewable biological systems for alternative sustainable energy production. (FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin - 128) (1997)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentContributors
View the documentForeword
View the documentSummary
close this folderChapter 1 - Biological energy production
View the document1.1 Energy and environmental issues
close this folder1.2 Photosynthesis and biomass
View the document1.2.1 Photosynthetic efficiency
View the document1.2.2 Biomass wastes and their conversion
View the document1.2.3 Fuel production via microalgal CO2 fixation
View the document1.3 General problems
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close this folderChapter 2 - Energy conversion by photosynthetic organisms
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close this folder2.1 Photosynthetic capture of solar energy
View the document2.1.1 Solar energy
View the document2.1.2 Why is biotechnology now applied to energy technology?
close this folder2.2 Photosynthesis mechanisms
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View the document2.2.1 Plant photosynthesis
View the document2.2.2 Bacterial photosynthesis
close this folder2.3 Hydrogen production through solar energy conversions
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View the document2.3.1 Cyanobacterial hydrogen production (plant-type photosynthesis)
View the document2.3.2 Bacterial hydrogen production (bacterial-type photosynthesis)
View the document2.3.3 Use of photosynthesized proteins in photoelectric conversion elements
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close this folderChapter 3 - Production of fuel alcohol from cellulosic biomass
View the document3.1 Introduction
close this folder3.2 Cellulase production
View the document3.2.1 Cellulase
View the document3.2.2 Screening of cellulase-producing microorganisms
close this folder3.2.3 Strain improvement for cellulase production
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View the document3.2.3.1 Development of a process for high-titer cellulase production
View the document3.2.3.2 Cellulase production at low cost
View the document3.2.3.3 Potential for mass production of cellulase
close this folder3.3 Saccharification of cellulosic waste materials
View the document3.3.1 Pre-treatment of cellulosic waste
close this folder3.3.2 Saccharification of cellulosic waste
View the document3.3.2.1 Saccharification
View the document3.3.2.2 Recovery and re-use of cellulase
View the document3.3.2.3 Sugar concentration using reverse osmosis
close this folder3.4 Use of immobilized yeast cells in alcohol fermentation's
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View the document3.4.1 Preparation of immobilized yeast cells
View the document3.4.2 Continuous plant operation using immobilized yeast cells
View the document3.4.3 Fermentation processes used in ethanol production
View the document3.4.4 Flash fermentation using immobilized yeast cells
close this folder3.5 Alcohol production using an integrated pilot plant
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View the document3.5.1 Outline
View the document3.5.2 Pre-treatment of cellulosic biomass
View the document3.5.3 Cellulase production
View the document3.5.4 Saccharification of biomass
View the document3.5.5 Enzyme recovery from biomass
View the document3.5.6 Concentration of sugar solutions
View the document3.5.7 Alcohol fermentation
View the document3.5.8 Alcohol recovery
View the document3.6 Feasibility study
View the document3.7 Conclusion
View the documentReferences
close this folderChapter 4 - Methane production
View the document(introduction...)
close this folder4.1 Microbial consortia and biological aspects of methane fermentation
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View the document4.1.1 Hydrolysis and acidogenesis
View the document4.1.2 Acetogenesis and dehydrogenation
View the document4.1.3 Methanogenesis
close this folder4.2 Molecular biology of methanogens
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View the document4.2.1 Genetic markers
View the document4.2.2 Molecular cloning of methanogenic genes
View the document4.2.3 Genetic transformations
close this folder4.3 Developments in bioreactor technology
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View the document4.3.1 Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)
View the document4.3.2 Upflow anaerobic filter process (UAFP)
View the document4.3.3 Anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor (AFBR)
View the document4.3.4 Two-phase methane fermentation processes
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close this folderChapter 5 - Hydrogen production
View the document5.1 Introduction
close this folder5.2 Biophotolysis of water by microalgae and cyanobacteria
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View the document5.2.1 Hydrogenase-dependent hydrogen production
View the document5.2.2 Nitrogenase-dependent hydrogen production
close this folder5.3 Hydrogen from organic compounds
View the document5.3.1 Hydrogen production by photosynthetic bacteria
View the document5.3.2 Combined photosynthetic and anaerobic and bacterial hydrogen production
View the document5.4 Enhancement of hydrogen-producing capabilities through genetic engineering
View the document5.5 Research and development on biological hydrogen production
View the document5.6 Future prospects
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close this folderChapter 6 - Oil production
View the document6.1 Oil substitutes from biomass
View the document6.2 Microalgae as biological sources of lipids and hydrocarbons
close this folder6.3 Thermochemical liquefaction of microalgae
View the document6.3.1 Liquid fuels from microalgal biomass
View the document6.3.2 Cultivation of microalgae
View the document6.3.3 Liquefaction of microalgae
View the document6.4 Algal hydrogenation
View the document6.5 Future prospects
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close this folderChapter 7 - The future of renewable biological energy systems
View the document7.1 Introduction
View the document7.2 Biomass production potential and efficiencies
View the document7.3 Fuel alcohol production from biomass
View the document7.4 Methane fermentations
View the document7.5 Fuels derived from microalgae
View the document7.6 Conclusions
View the documentReferences
View the documentFAO technical papers

(introduction...)

Various aspects of alcohol fermentation from cellulosic biomass have been discussed thus far. A number of problems still remain to be resolved prior to industrial-scale production of fuel alcohol from cellulosic biomass. As mentioned in the introduction to this chapter, subsequent to our studies on basic and elemental techniques, an integrated pilot plant for the production of alcohol from biomass, was constructed in our laboratory, in order to demonstrate individual processes. Construction of the plant commenced in 1983, and continued in a step-wise manner for 5 years. The final plant was capable of treating 720 kg of raw material per day with the production of 150 to 200 liters of dehydrated fuel alcohol. A process flow diagram of the pilot plant is given in Fig. 3-20, while Fig. 3-21 shows a plan of the plant.


Figure 3.17 - Effect of alcohol concentration on fermentation rates of immobilized continuous fermentation processes


Figure 3.18 - Schematic of an immobilized flash system