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close this bookIndigenous technology knowledge for watershed management in upper north-west Himalayas of India (1998)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1 - Bio-physical and socio-economic set up in the Indian Upper Himalayas
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 2 - Soil and water management techniques
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 3 - Forestry and agro-forestry management practices
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 4 - Livestock and fodder management
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 5 - Folk agronomy
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 6 - Plant protection practices
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 7 - Post-harvest management of food crops
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 8 - Weather forecasting
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 9 - Tools and implements
View the documentGlossary of local terms
View the documentAcknowledgements
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Glossary of local terms

Aari

Small saw which is operated by single person

Agalmaka/Miamua/Rongchugala/Ahia

Religious festivals

Anar

Pomegranate (a tropical fruit with many seeds), Punica granatum

Angoori

A grape wine, Vitis spp.

Angora

Type of goat

Aonla

Emblica Officinalis

Arbi

Colocasia species

Bajagun

Mucuna prurita (a weed for controlling rat menace)

Baltoi

A vessel used for distillating wine from fermented fruits

Baraghar

Method for constructing small bed in the fields for irrigation purpose

Barter system

A system in which purchase and sale of animals, farm produce and goods is based on exhange basis

Basuti

Adhatoda vasica (a medicinal plant)

Batauva

Cissampelos pareira

Bathu

A leafy vegetable, Chenopodium album

Baurh

First floor of traditional hilly houses

Behla

Sharp edged axe used for separation of chilgoza seeds from its cones

Belcha

Spade

Beli/Belly

A multipurpose tree used for fuel, agricultural implements, medicine, etc.

Behmi

Wild almond

Ber

Zizypus mauritiana (an important fruit tree)

Berka

Threshing pole

Beul

Grewia optiva

Bhains

Salix tetrasperma

Bhang

Cannabis sativa, a multipurpose narcotic plant

Bharal

Animal found in cold desert of Himachal Pradesh

Bhera

Indigenous medicinal plant, Terminalia chebula

Bileha

Pick axe

Bori

Sack (Bag)

Buckwheat

Fagopyrum specie whose grains are used as a food

Bukarien

Sun dried slices of unripened mangoes, Mangifera indica

Chabbal

Jumper

Chaggar

A white stone used for curing paralysis

Chagwal

Spade

Chakkala-Belan

Rolling pin and board used for making chapatis

Chakki

Hand mill

Chaksa

Richest manure which comprises human exereta and animal bones

Chalta

A big special vessel made of brass used for preparing steam cooked cake of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordium vulgare)

Changer

Bamboo (Dendrocalamus spp.) containers used for drying food items

Changpass

Changra goats (type of goats) owner

Changthang

Name of place

Cheenee

A millet crop, Panicum miliaceum

Chhang/Ghanti

Alcoholic drink made from rice, Avena saliva starch

Chhini

Chisel

Chikri

Khilna

Chilgoza

Seeds of Pinus gerardiana, which considered as valuable dry fruit

Chillowane

Schima wallichii

Chirpine

Pinus roxburghii

Chola

A woollen dress

Chukor

Partrage found in cold deserts of Himachal Pradesh

Chulai

Leafy vegetable (Amaranthus viridis)

Chuli

Prunus armenica, wild apricot

Chullah

A fire place for cooking

Chum

Cross breed of yak and cow used for milk

Chutsa

Chisel

Cowpea

Fodder grass, Phaseolus vulgaris

Daach

Big sickle

Dachi

Sickle

Dan

Hammer

Dandal/Danthal

Harrow

Darant/Darat

Big sickle

Daranti/Darati

Sickle

Darauntha

A deodar (Cedrus deodara) wood container for storing grains

Ddah

A bamboo (Dendrocalamus spp.) sticks

Demo

Animal used for ploughing and transportation

Deodar

Cedrus deodara, timber yielding species of Himalayan forests

Desi

Indigenous/local

Dhan

Sheep and goats wealth

Dhar

High mountains

Dhars

High mountain peaks

Dhoonu

Wild onion type, Allium cepa

Diggi

Digout structure to store rain water

Do chu

Crop ready for harvest

Dokas

Grazing animal shelter

Dora

Rope tied at the waist by both men and women

Dorati/Dranti

Sickle

Draft/Drant

Big sickle

Dzo/Dzoma

Milk producing animals

Dzos

Animal used for ploughing

Gaddis

Semi-nomedic tribals of Kangra and Chamba districts of HP

Gainti

Pick axe

Galgal

A fruit of citrus (Citrus pseudolimon) family

Gandasa

Sharp blade fitted to wooden handle

Gandhala

Murraya koenigii

Garr dena

Process for ripen the crop

Garr dena

Process of stacking millet grains

Gep chu

Seed setting

Ghasni

Grass land

Ghee

Fats made from vegetable and animal’s milk

Ghoom

Hammer

Ghors

Stored grass heap

Gur/shakkar

Crude sugar

Gyama

Harrow

Hal

Wooden plough

Halod

An agricultural operation through ploughing carried out in kharif crops particularly for thinning of the crop and sowing of pulses as intercrop

Hathodi

Iron Hammer

Havan

A religious ceremony

Heeng

Asafoetida spp. (dried exudate)

Hukka

Device for smoking tobacco

Jalga

A perennial wild spice plant, Phytolaca acinosa

Jathugza

Sharp blade fitted to wooden handle

Jawanlari

Burning grass

Jeth

Summer month

Jhabbal

Jumper/Crowbar

Jhhamb

Spade

Jhong

Yoke

Jhontu

Small axe

Jhuming

Shifting cultivation

Joda/Joom/Jungla

Yoke (Farming implement used for ploughing and planking with bulls)

Jonks

Leechs

Jorah/Jorah

Leveller

Kachnar

Bahaunia variegata

Kail

Pinus wallichiana (Blue pine)

Kaimal

Mallotus philipinensis

Klam/Dambu

Grafting operation used in horticultural crops

Kalijiri

Centratherum antheminticum

Kamoli

Small wool pack

Kanda

Highest point where cultivable lands are found above the village

Kandas

Highest point of cultivation in a village

Kangoo

Comb for combing wood

Karnu

A local tree

Karolari

Saw

Kasi

Hoe

Kath

Pyrus pashia

Katha

Acacia catechu, Commercial product of khair tree

Kera

Large sieve

Khads

Water streams

Khair

Acacia catechu

Khaliyan

Courtyard or a small ground used for threshing their field crops

Kharif

Crop season from May-June to Oct.- Nov., main crops of this season are maize, paddy, pulses etc.

Kharji

Small axe

Khasipine

Pinus kesia

Kassi

Hoe

Khati

Dugout structure to store rain water

Khatti

Ginger (Zingiber officinalis) storage pits

Khawaja

Diety

Khejri

A multipurpose nitrogen fixing tree (Prosopis cineraria)

Khet

Fields

Khirak

Celtis australis

Kholang

Threshing floor

Khot

Hand hoe

Khurda

Animal foot disease

Khurpa/Khurpi

Hand hoe

Khus

Grass (Vitivera gigentica)

Kikar

Acacia nilotica

Kilni

Khilna

Kilta

A wooden container

Kimze

Cattle

Kodo

A millet crop, Paspalum serobiculatum

Kongni

Millet, Setaria italica

Kudal/Kudali

Hoe

Kuhal/Kuhl

Small water channel used for irrigation purposes

Kuldebta

Village deity

Kulhadu

Small axe

Kuljana

Type of vine

Kundli

Stacked paddy bundles

Kunish

Alnus spp.

Kutcha

Mud structure

Kuth

Saussurea lappa, a commercial cash crop

Lahanga/Pattee

Long woollen dress

Until

Broad leaved fodder (Herb)

Lota

Container generally used for drinking water and watering plants

Mach/Maida

Leveller

Maddim

A plain wooden structure used for levelling the ploughed lands

Mahhash

A cowdung storing pit

Mahlash

Fermenting vat or bottle placed in cow dung pit

Mahopar

Edible fungus

Mahotar/dhingri/guchhi

Edible fungus

Maina

Name of bird

Makudi

Small axe

Malundi

Shepherds

Mandal

Millet grain

Mandal/sonk

A millet crop

Mash

Leguminous crop used as pulse (Vigna radiata)

Masoor

Mustard (Lense esculanta)

Masur

Leguminous crop used as pulse (Lense esculanta)

Matilari

Name of bird

Meryana

Ulmus leviegata

Methi

Trigonella foenum graecum, Fenugreek (important spice)

Miar Nallah

A place in Lahaul part of Lahaul & Spiti

Mint/Pudina

Mint (Mentha spp.)

Moi

Leveller

Moong

Leguminous crop used as pulse (Vigna mungo)

Moori

Concentrated alcoholic drink

Mug

Container used for watering plants

Nagal

Wooden plough

Nallah/Nalla/Nallaha

A mini water stream

Naryal

Big sickle

Navratras

A set of auspicious nine days in Hindu religion

Nayan

Animal found in cold deserts of Himachal Pradesh

Neem

Azadirachta indica

Nialu

Name of bird

Nihani

Chisel

Non chu

Flowering

Oei/Ohi

Albizia chinensis

Okthan

Hoe

Oven

Grain storage room

Pabo

High pasture

Padawata

.Hammer

Pahra

A small bundle of maize plants made after harvesting the crop

Pala

Turn-wise distribution of water

Panaudi

A container (bigger than sup/chhaj) made up of bamboo sticks used for winnowing grains on large scale

Pang

Type of grass

Papiha

Name of bird

Pashimna goat

A special type of goat which produced very soft wool

Pattu

A woollen blanket

Peri/Pedu

Bamboo container

Phafra/Phaphra

Buckwheat (Phagopyrum spp.)

Phanani

A bow shaped device used for combing wool

Phat

Sack (Bag)

Phawara

Spade

Phorwa

Spade

Pobo

High pastures

Podu

Shifting cultivation

Poola

Bundle of grass

Pooli/poola

Harvested paddy bundle

Puhal

A shephard

Punjali

Yoke

Purih/Purah

Containers made up of leaves

Rabi crop

Crops like wheat, mustard etc. grown during the months of Oct.-Nov. to April-May

Rajmash

A pulse crop (Phaseolus vulgaris)

Rango

Highest point where cultivable lands are found above the village

Ranthak

Hand mill

Rashi

Dilute alcoholic drink

Rushans

Earthen pots

Rutasa

Sharp blade fitted to wooden handle

Safeda

Eucalyptus spp.

Sak chu

Growing

Sarkanda grass

A wild growing long grass commonly used for thatching houses and making bee hives (Saccharum spontaneous)

Sarson

Mustard (Brassica compastris)

Shangma stone

A bluish coloured water soluble stone with weedicide properties

Sheen

Winnower

Shennang

Cultivable lands below the village

Shisham

Dalbergia sisoo

Singaitoo

Traditional song

Singaitoo

A local song

Situ

A mango variety (Mangifera spp.)

Sling & karban

Traditional devices for scaring birds and stray animals

Sonk

Millet grain

Sonth

Wild almond {Prunus spp.)

Soolini Mela

Local fair of Soolini deity

Soop

Winnower

Sora

Sickle

Spang

Type of grass

Sua

Wooden pin

Suhaga

A plain wooden structure used for levelling the ploughed fields

Sup/Chhaj

Light wooden structure used for grain winnowing

Surmn

Iron hook provided with wooded handle

Taklu

A special spindle device

Talent

A pyramid shaped structure made for storing dry grass

Tambaku

Tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum)

Tatihari

Name of bird

Ten

Small axe

Thali

Plate

Thobi

Cloth made from yaks hair

Thoras

A shade tree adjoining to small streams

Thoug

Wooden plough

Thowa/Ud

Hammer

Thua/Zhumb

Harvested stacks/bundles of maize at one place from which later on cobs are separated

Tillbohara

Dragan fly

Titar

Partridge

Tokhara

A small wooden structure used for digging the soil

Tokhre

A wooden structure used in Ladakh area for digging the soil to facilitate horizontal spread of roots of vegetable crops

Tokra

A small wooden container

Tokru

A wooden container

Tol chu

Germination

Toll

A pyramid shaped structure used for storing dry grass

Toon

Toona ciliata

Toot

Moms alba

Tor

A multiple wild plant, Bauhinia vahilii

Trakar

Pastures

Urd

Leguminous crop, Vigna radiata

Urma

Device made from horns of animals and used for irrigation in initial stage of crop

Utis

Alnus nepalensis

Yara

Large sieve

Zabbal

Jumper

Zings

Water pond

Zira

Cumin (important spice)

Zongfa

Winnower