Cover Image
close this bookInland Aquaculture Engineering (1984)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentFOREWORD
close this folderSITE SELECTION AND ENGINEERING STUDIES
close this folderChapter 1. Considerations in the Selection of Sites for Aquaculture
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View the document1. INTRODUCTION
close this folder2. FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN SITE SELECTION
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close this folder2.1 Ecological factors
View the document2.1.1 Water supply
View the document2.1.2 Water quality
View the document2.1.3 Climate
View the document2.1.4 Hydrological characteristics
View the document2.1.5 Soil characteristics
View the document2.1.6 Land
View the document2.2 Biological and operational factors
View the document2.3 Economic and social factors
View the document3. REFERENCES
close this folderChapter 2. Hydrological Information for Design and Operation of Agriculture Systems
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View the document1. TYPE OF INFORMATION NEEDED FOR DESIGN AND OPERATION
close this folder2. HYDROLOGICAL FORECASTING FOR OPERATION PURPOSES
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View the document2.1 Forecasting on Headwaters and Small Rivers
View the document2.2 Forecasting the Regime of Large Rivers
close this folder3. DETERMINING DESIGN PARAMETERS
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View the document3.1 Reservoir Design
View the document3.2 Wind Effects
View the document4. DETERMINATION OF AREAL PRECIPITATION
View the document5. THE REGIME OF SOIL MOISTURE
View the document6. EVAPORATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
View the document7. GROUNDWATER PROBLEMS ARISING IN CONNECTION WITH AQUACULTURE STRUCTURES
close this folderChapter 3. Hydraulic Aspects in Designing Aquaculture Systems
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close this folder1. WATER CONVEYING CAPACITY OF PIPELINES
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View the document1.1 Calculation of Head Loss
View the document1.2 Fundamental Equation for Calculating Head Loss in and/or Discharge of Pipelines
close this folder2. WATER CONVEYING CAPACITY OF OPEN CANALS
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View the document2.1 Fundamentals for Calculating the Characteristics of Uniform Steady Flow in Open Canals, the Chézy Formula
View the document2.2 The Velocity Coefficient (Chézy’s C)
View the document2.3 Characteristics of the Canal Cross-Section, Permissible Velocity
View the document2.4 Computation of Cross-Section Dimensions or Discharge
close this folder3. OUTFLOW UNDER GATES AND MOVABLE WEIRS
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View the document3.1 Various Types of Outflow Under Gates and their Hydraulic Computation
View the document3.2 Hydraulic Computations for Estimating Characteristics of Tailwater Apron and the Hydraulic Jump
close this folder4. FLOW OVER WEIRS
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View the document4.1 Sharp Crested Weirs
View the document4.2 Weir Section Shaped to fit the Nappe, or Ogee Profile
View the document4.3 Special Weirs
View the document4.4 The Tailwater Apron Following Weirs
close this folderChapter 4. Input Load Determination and Ecosystem Modelling
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View the document1. INPUT LOAD DETERMINATION AND ECOSYSTEM MODELLING IN THE DESIGN AND CONTROL OF PERFORMANCE OF FISH FARMS
View the document2. WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEMS VIEWING
View the document3. INPUT LOAD DETERMINATIONS
View the document4. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM MODELS
View the document5. SUMMARIZING REMARKS
View the document6. REFERENCES
close this folderChapter 5. Soils Engineering for Design of Ponds, Canals and Dams in Aquaculture
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close this folder1. INTRODUCTION - THE PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED
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View the document1.1 Cohesive Soils
close this folder2. SITE EXPLORATIONS
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View the document2.1 Pond Areas and Canal Traces
View the document2.2 Borrow Sites
View the document2.3 Structure Sites
close this folder3. LABORATORY TESTS
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View the document3.1 Additional Tests for Pike and Dam Materials
View the document3.2 Interpretation of the Results
View the document4. DESIGNING FISH-POND DIKES AND DAMS
View the document5. CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION
close this folderDESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF FRESHWATER FISH FARMS
close this folderChapter 6. Principles of Designing Inland Fish Farms
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close this folder1. SITE SELECTION
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View the document1.1 Considerations in Site Selection
View the document1.2 Basic Principles of Arrangement
close this folder2. PREPARATORY WORK
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View the document2.1 Technological Requirements
View the document2.2 General Technical Data
View the document2.3 Geodetical Data
View the document2.4 Hydrological and Meteorological Data
View the document2.5 Geotechnical Data
View the document2.6 Water Quality Data
close this folder3. PURPOSE AND DIMENSIONING OF FISH FARM STRUCTURES
View the document3.1 Hatchery
View the document3.2 Fry Rearing Ponds and Basins
View the document3.3 Nursery Ponds
View the document3.4 Production Ponds
View the document3.5 Fish Holding Facilities
close this folder4. FISH POND ARRANGEMENTS
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View the document4.1 Barrage Ponds
View the document4.2 Contour Ponds
View the document4.3 Paddy Ponds
close this folder5. EARTH STRUCTURES
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View the document5.1 Dams and Dikes
View the document5.2 Feeder Canals
View the document5.3 Drainage canals
View the document5.4 Drain Ditch
View the document5.5 Internal Pond Drains
View the document5.6 Borrow Pits
View the document5.7 Internal Harvesting Pits
close this folder6. DIKE PROTECTION
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View the document6.1 Wave Action
View the document6.2 Biological Protection
View the document6.3 Wave Control Linings
close this folder7. STRUCTURES
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View the document7.1 Monk Sluices
View the document7.2 Open Sluices
View the document7.3 Spillways
View the document7.4 Fish Control Structures
View the document8. REFERENCES
close this folderChapter 7. Preparation of Plans and Cost Estimates and Tender Documents
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View the document1. INTRODUCTION
close this folder2. OUTLINE OR FEASIBILITY PLAN
View the document2.1 Purpose of Outline Plan
close this folder2.2 Procedures for Preparation of Outline Plan
View the document2.2.1 Site selection
View the document2.2.2 Collection of maps and data
View the document2.2.3 Outline plan
close this folder3. DETAILED PLAN
close this folder3.1 Reviewing Outline Plan
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View the document3.1.1 Topographic survey
View the document3.1.2 Soil survey
close this folder3.2 Detailed Planning
View the document3.2.1 Project report
View the document3.2.2 Designs
View the document3.2.3 Criteria for designing pond facilities
View the document3.2.4 Preparation of detailed drawings
close this folder4. ESTIMATES
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close this folder4.1 Preparation of Detailed Estimates
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View the document4.1.1 General abstract of cost
View the document4.1.2 Abstract of cost
View the document4.1.3 Analysis of rates
View the document4.1.4 Quantity estimates
close this folder5. TENDER DOCUMENTS
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View the document5.1 Advertisement for Bids (Notice to Contractors, or Invitation to Bid)
close this folder5.2 Draft Contract
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View the document5.2.1 Types of contracts
View the document5.2.2 General provisions or general conditions
View the document5.2.3 Special provisions or special conditions
close this folder5 .3 Statements of Work, Services and Technical Specifications
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View the document5.3.1 Types of specifications
View the document5.3.2 Specification writing
View the document5.4 Bill of Quantities
View the document5.5 Schedule of Execution
View the document5.6 Bidding Schedule
View the document5.7 Approved Drawings
View the document6. REFERENCES
View the documentANNEX 1 HYDROLOGICAL FORMULAS
View the documentANNEX 2 GENERAL PROVISIONS
View the documentANNEX 3 SPECIAL PROVISIONS
View the documentANNEX 4 CONSTRUCTION OF CHIPATA FISH FARM IN ZAMBIA
View the documentANNEX 5 Bill No........ Construction of Outlets
View the documentANNEX 6 Bill of Quantities and Contract Cost
View the documentANNEX 7 Bidding Schedule
close this folderChapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms
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View the document1. LIST OF SYMBOLS, DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
View the document2. DESIGN FORMULAS FOR CHANNEL FLOW
close this folder3. DESIGN FORMULAS FOR HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES
close this folder3.1 Design Formulas for Intakes
View the document3.1.1 Open intake (sluice)
View the document3.1.2 Pipe intake
close this folder3.2 Design Formulas for Inlets
View the document3.2.1 Free fall pipe inlet
View the document3.2.2 Submerged pipe inlet
View the document3.2.3 Open flume inlet
close this folder3.3 Design Formulas for Outlets
View the document3.3.1 Types of outlets
close this folder3.4 Design Formulas for Culvert
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View the document3.4.1 Discharge formulas
close this folder3.5 Design Formulas for Vertical Falls
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View the document3.5.1 Discharge formulas
close this folder3.6 Design Formulas for Spillways
View the document3.6.1 Recommended design floods for the spillways
View the document3.6.2 Types of spillways
View the document3.6.3 Discharge formulas
close this folder3.7 Design Formulas for Siphons
View the document3.7.1 Types of siphons
View the document3.7.2 Discharge of siphon
close this folder4. DISCHARGE OF WELLS
View the document4.1 Well Types
View the document4.2 Well Discharge in a Confined Aquifer
View the document4.3 Well Discharge in an Unconfined Aquifer
View the document4.4 Radius of Influence
View the document4.5 Screen Entrance Velocity
View the document4.6 Recommended Well Diameter
View the document5. DESIGN FORMULA FOR SCREEN
View the document6. DESIGN FORMULA FOR FILTER
close this folder7. DESIGN FORMULAS FOR FLOW IN PIPES
View the document7.1 Conveyance Method
View the document7.2 Minor Losses
View the document7.3 Local Losses
close this folder8. DESIGN FORMULAS FOR PUMPING
View the document8.1 Types of Pumps Used in Aquaculture
View the document8.2 Total Dynamic Heads
View the document8.3 Specific Speed
View the document8.4 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)
View the document8.5 Power Requirement
View the document8.6 Determination of the Most Economical Pipe Diameter
close this folderChapter 9. Problems on Pond Construction and Maintenance on Cat Clay Soils
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1. INTRODUCTION
View the document2. FORMATION OF ACID SULPHATE SOILS
View the document3. FIELD IDENTIFICATION
View the document4. PROBLEMS OF POND CONSTRUCTION AND PLANNING
View the document5. REMEDIES FOR PONDS BUILT ON ACID SULPHATE SOILS
View the document6. MANAGEMENT MEASURES
View the document7. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
View the document8. REFERENCES
close this folderChapter 10. The Organization and Supervision of Fish Farm Construction
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View the document1. INTRODUCTION
close this folder2. PREPARATIONS FOR FISH FARM CONSTRUCTION
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close this folder2.1 Preparatory Process
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View the document2.1.1 Methods used in organization of construction work
View the document2.1.2 Detailed plans required of the contractor
View the document2.1.3 Choosing and operating the equipment
close this folder3. EXECUTION OF CONSTRUCTION WORKS
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View the document3.1 Approach Road
View the document3.2 Public Services
View the document3.3 Temporary Buildings
View the document3.4 Planning Material to be ordered
View the document3.5 Ordering Equipment and Instruments
View the document3.6 Organization and Transport of Plant and Equipment
View the document3.7 Site Clearing
View the document3.8 Setting Out of Buildings, Dikes, etc.
View the document3.9 Earthworks
View the document3.10 Structures
View the document3.11 Buildings
View the document3.12 Site Finishing
close this folder4. SUPERVISION OF CONSTRUCTION BY THE ENGINEER
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View the document4.1 The Engineer’s Tasks during Construction
close this folderDESIGN OF FISH HATCHERIES
close this folderChapter 11. Technology for Fish Propagation
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close this folder1. GENERAL TECHNOLOGY FOR FISH PROPAGATION
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View the document1.1 Culture and Management of Brood Stock
View the document1.2 Environmental Conditions for Culturing Breeders
close this folder2. PRACTICAL TECHNOLOGIES OF THE ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION OF CULTIVATED FISH SPECIES
close this folder2.1 Common carp
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View the document2.1.1 Reproduction
View the document2.1.2 Economic characterization
View the document2.1.3 Artificial propagation
close this folder2.2 Chinese Herbivorous Fishes
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View the document2.2.1 Reproduction
View the document2.2.2 Economic characterization
View the document2.2.3 Artificial propagation
View the document2.2.4 Sexual differentiation
View the document2.2.5 Handling of spawners
View the document2.2.6 Hypophysation
View the document2.2.7 Keeping injected fish in the hatchery
View the document2.2.8 Procurement of eggs and milt
View the document2.2.9 Fertilization of eggs
View the document2.2.10 The ripening, attending and hatching of the eggs
View the document2.2.11 Keeping the larvae
View the document2.2.12 Biological and technological data spawning ages in years
close this folder2.3 European Catfish
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View the document2.3.1 Reproduction
View the document2.3.2 Economic characterization
View the document2.3.3 Artificial propagation
close this folder2.4 Pike Perch
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View the document2.4.1 Reproduction
View the document2.4.2 Economic characterization
View the document2.4.3 Propagation
View the document2.4.4 Sexual differentiation
View the document2.4.5 Spawning in fish ponds
View the document2.4.6 Hypophysation
View the document2.4.7 Hatching
View the document2.4.8 Biological and technical data
close this folder2.5 Pike
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View the document2.5.1 Reproduction
View the document2.5.2 Economic characterization
View the document2.5.3 Artificial propagation
View the document2.5.4 Sexual differentiation
View the document2.5.5 Hypophysation
View the document2.5.6 Hatching
View the document2.5.7 Biological and technical data
close this folder2.6 Semi-Artificial Propagation of Indian Carps
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View the document2.6.1 Propagation
View the document2.6.2 Economic features
View the document2.6.3 Way of distinguishing male or female spawners
View the document2.6.4 Age of fish at first propagation
View the document2.6.5 Hypophysation
View the document2.6.6 Keeping of spawners and spawning
View the document2.6.7 Hatching of the seed
View the document2.6.8 Rearing of larva
View the document2.6.9 Biological and technical figures
close this folderChapter 12 Planning of Fish Hatcheries
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View the document1. BASIC DATA
close this folder2. PROCESSING OF BASIC DATA
View the document2.1 Planning the Time
View the document2.2 Determination of Main Parameters
View the document3. CALCULATION OF WATER REQUIREMENT OF A FISH HATCHERY
View the document4. TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENT OF HATCHING
View the document5. TECHNOLOGICAL DESIGN
View the document6. CONNECTED FACILITIES
close this folderRACEWAYS, CAGES AND OTHER FLOW-THROUGH SYSTEMS IN AQUACULTURE
close this folderChapter 13 Deign and Construction of Raceways and Other Flow-Through Systems
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View the document1. INTRODUCTION
close this folder2. WATER SUPPLY
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View the document2.1 Conventional Flow-Through Systems
View the document2.2 Intensive Flow-Through Systems
close this folder3. THE FUNDAMENTALS OF THE DESIGN OF FLOW-THROUGH SYSTEMS
View the document3.1 Water Pumping System
close this folder3.2 Tank Design
View the document3.2.1 Size
View the document3.2.2 Material
View the document3.2.3 Additional equipment
View the documentREFERENCES
close this folderChapter 14 Freshwater Cage for Fish
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View the document1. INTRODUCTION
close this folder2. SITE SELECTION FOR CAGE CULTURE
close this folder2.1 Characteristics of the Site
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View the document2.1.1 Water quality
View the document2.1.2 Water depth
View the document2.1.3 Water current
close this folder2.2 Environmental Considerations
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View the document2.2.1 Effects of cage fish farming on the environment
View the document2.2.2 Effects of the environment on cage fish farming
View the document2.2.3 Service and operational considerations
close this folder3. THE MAIN PARTS OF A CAGE FARM
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View the document3.1 Netting
View the document3.2 Floats
View the document3.3 Frame
View the document3.4 Mooring
View the document3.5 Shore Facilities
close this folder4. RESULTS OF THE CAGE FISH CULTURE EXPERIMENTS IN HUNGARY
View the document4.1 Culture of Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio) in Net Cages
View the document4.2 Net Cage Culture of Sheatfish (Silurus Glanis)
View the document4.3 Net Cage Culture of Bester (a hybrid of Huso huso × Acipenser ruthenus)
View the document4.4 Biculture of Sheatfish (Silurus glanis) and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) in a Net Cage
View the document4.5 Net Cage Polyculture of Carp and Herbivorous Fish
View the document4.6 Fish Polyculture in an Enclosure
close this folderRECIRCULATION SYSTEMS IN AQUACULTURE
close this folderChapter 15 Recirculatig Systems and Re-use of Water in Aquaculture
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View the document1. INTRODUCTION
close this folder2. DESIGN OF RECIRCULATION SYSTEMS
View the document2.1 Design of Oxygen Supply
View the document2.2 Design for Ammonia Removal
View the document2.3 Design of Complex Recirculation Systems
View the document2.4 Calculation of Water Requirement
View the document2.5 Other Design Criteria
View the document3. THE PROPER UTILIZATION OF CAPACITY
View the document4. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
View the document5. REFERENCES
close this folderMECHANIZATION OF FISH FARM OPERATIONS
close this folderChapter 16 Design of Pumping Stations
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View the document1. GROUPING OF PUMPING STATIONS
View the document2. PUMP WELL
View the document3. SETTING OF PUMPS
View the document4. CHARACTERS OF PUMP SETTING
View the document5. CAPACITY OF THE PUMP STATION
close this folder6. CALCULATION OF HEAD
View the document(introduction...)
View the document6.1 Entrance Loss:
View the document6.2 Resistance of Suction Screen
View the document6.3 Resistance of Foot Valve
View the document6.4 Pressure Loss Coming from Pipe Friction (h3)
View the document6.5 Valves Built in the Pipeline (Gate Valve, Check Valve, etc.)
View the document6.6 Pressure Loss from Inversion (h7)
View the document7. PIPE SYSTEM IN THE PUMP HOUSE
View the document8. VALVES
close this folder9. PUMPS
View the document9.1 Choice of the Proper Type of Pump
View the document9.2 Control of Delivering Capacity
close this folder10. AUXILIARY FACILITIES
View the document10.1 Priming
View the document10.2 Cranes
close this folderChapter 17 Artificial Feeding in Intensive Fish Culture
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1. INTRODUCTION
View the document2. TABLES AND DIAGRAM USED FOR INTRODUCTION OF LECTURE
View the document3. REFERENCES
close this folderChapter 18 Fish Feed Production, Storage and Transportation
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View the document1. INTRODUCTION
close this folder2. CEREALS
View the document2.1 Cereal Harvesting and Treatment
View the document2.2 Moisture Content of Cereals
close this folder2.3 Storage of Cereals
View the document2.3.1 Vacuum storage
View the document2.3.2 Storage with ventilation
View the document2.3.3 Cold storage
View the document2.4 Chemical Treatment
View the document3. TYPES OF DRIERS AND SOME DRYING TECHNOLOGIES
View the document4. STORAGE OF FEEDS
View the document5. MACHINERY FOR PREPARATION OF COMPOUND FEED
View the document6. IMPORTANT POINTS IN THE PREPARATION OF MEALY MATERIALS
close this folder7. TYPES OF MILL CONSTRUCTION
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View the document7.1 Types of Feed Mixing Apparatus
View the document7.2 Preparation of Pellets
View the document7.3 Types of Driers
View the document8. AUXILIARY PARTS OF THE FEED MILL
View the document9. MACHINERY FOR TRANSPORTATION
View the document10. REFERENCES
close this folderChapter 19 Mechanized Feeding in Aquaculture
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View the document1. INTRODUCTION
View the document2. FISH FEED STORAGE FACILITIES
View the document3. FEED TRANSPORTING EQUIPMENT
close this folder4. FEED DISTRIBUTORS
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close this folder4.1 Stationary Feeding Equipment
View the document4.1.1 Demand feeders
View the document4.1.2 Automatic feeders
close this folder4.2 Mobile Feeding Equipment
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View the document4.2.1 Feeding carts
View the document4.2.2 Feeding boats
View the document5. REFERENCES
close this folderChapter 20 Mechanized Harvesting in Fish Culture
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View the document1. INTRODUCTION
close this folder2. HERDING OPERATIONS
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View the document2.1 Mechanical Driving
View the document2.2 Hydraulic Driving
View the document2.3 Electrical Driving
close this folder3. CATCHING OPERATIONS
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View the document3.1 Mechanical Fish Lifting
View the document3.2 Hydraulic Fish Lifting
View the document4. FISH SORTING
View the document5. REFERENCES
close this folderChapter 21 Aeration and Oxygenation in Aquaculture
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close this folder1. OXYGEN BUDGET OF FISH PONDS
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View the document1.1 Diurnal Changes of Dissolved Oxygen Content
close this folder1.2 Factors Influencing the Dissolved Oxygen Content of Pond Water
View the document1.2.1 Production of macro- and microorganisms in the water
View the document1.2.2 Oxygen consumption by pond water
View the document1.2.3 Oxygen consumption by the pond bottom
View the document1.2.4 Oxygen consumption by fish
View the document1.2.5 Natural diffusion caused by wind action
View the document1.2.6 Artificial control of the dissolved oxygen content of water
close this folder2. AERATION DEVICES FOR FISH PONDS
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View the document2.1 Hydraulic Type Fish Pond Aerators
View the document2.2 Air Diffusion Type Fish Pond Aerators
close this folder3. UTILIZATION OF PURE OXYGEN IN INTENSIVE FISH CULTURE SYSTEMS
View the document(introduction...)
View the document3.1 Oxygen Absorption and its Devices
View the document3.2 Pipeline Injection of Oxygen
View the document3.3 U-tube Oxygenation
close this folder4. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE DESIGN OF FISH POND AERATORS
View the document4.1 Equilibrium Concentration of Oxygen in Water
View the document4.2 Mass Transfer Processes of Aerators
close this folder5. DIMENSIONING OF AERATORS
View the document5.1 Bubble Aeration
View the document5.2 Examples for Dimensioning Fine Bubble Aerators
View the document5.3 Aeration with Ejectors
View the document5.4 Aeration with Paddle Wheels
View the document6. REFERENCES
close this folderMAINTENANCE OF AQUAFARMS AND HATCHERIES
close this folderChapter 22 Maintenance of Fish Farms
View the document(introduction...)
close this folder1. FISH POND MAINTENANCE
View the document1.1 Maintenance of Earthworks
View the document1.2 Maintenance of Biological Slope Protection
View the document1.3 Maintenance of Water Control Structures
View the document1.4 Steel Structures
View the document1.5 Stone and Concrete Linings
close this folder2. RECONSTRUCTION WORKS
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close this folder2.1 Reconstruction of Earthworks
View the document2.1.1 Dikes
View the document2.1.2 Internal drainage canals and harvesting pits
View the document2.1.3 Canal
View the document2.2 Reconstruction of Water Control Structures
close this folder3. MECHANIZATION OF MAINTENANCE AND RECONSTRUCTION WORKS
View the document(introduction...)
View the document3.1 Mechanization of Fish Pond Maintenance
View the document3.2 Mechanized Maintenance of Canals
close this folderFISH HEALTH ASPECTS IN AQUACULTURE PLANNING
close this folderChapter 23 Fish Health Viewpoints in Planning Fish Producing Systems
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View the document1. INTRODUCTION
close this folder2. FISH DISEASES
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close this folder2.1 Important Types of Fish Diseases
View the document2.1.1 Not infectious diseases
View the document2.1.2 Infectious diseases
close this folder3. TECHNICAL ADVICE FOR PLANNING FISH BREEDING SYSTEMS
View the document(introduction...)
View the document3.1 Location of Fish Farms
close this folder3.2 Organizing Water Supply System
View the document3.2.1 Insufficient water supply (figure 3)
View the document3.2.2 Good water supply (figure 4)
View the document3.3 Hatcheries
View the document3.4 Nursery Ponds
View the document3.5 Ponds for Larger and Marketable Fish
close this folder4. PLANNING FISH PONDS
View the document4.1 Water Change
View the document4.2 Aeration of Ponds
View the document4.3 Bottom Treatments
View the document4.4 Removal of Mud
View the document4.5 Bird Problem
View the document5. INTENSIVE FISH BREEDING SYSTEMS
View the document6. REFERENCES
close this folderECONOMIC ASPECTS OF AQUACULTURE PLANNING
close this folderChapter 24 Economic Aspects of Aquafarm Construction and Maintenance
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1. INTRODUCTION
close this folder2. ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS IN SITE SELECTION
View the document(introduction...)
View the document2.1 Topography
View the document2.2 Hydrology
View the document2.3 Soil Conditions
View the document3. ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS IN CONSTRUCTION
close this folder4. ESTIMATION OF CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT COSTS
View the document4.1 Construction Costs
View the document4.2 Equipment Costs
close this folder4.3 Case Study
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View the document4.3.1 Costs of construction
View the document4.3.2 Costs of equipment
close this folder5. ECONOMIC EVALUATION
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View the document5.1 Comparison of Initial Costs
close this folder5.2 Cost-Return Analysis
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View the document5.2.1 Capital costs
View the document5.2.2 Annual operating costs
View the document5.2.3 Gross revenue
View the document5.2.4 Indicators of performance
View the document5.2.5 Example of cost-return analysis
close this folder5.3 Partial Budgeting
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View the document5.3.1 Example
close this folder5.4 Present Value Method
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View the document5.4.1 Example
View the document6. REFERENCES
View the documentAPPENDIX A - Fish Pond Technologies
View the documentAPPENDIX B - Aquacultural Rotation
View the documentAPPENDIX C - Fish-cum-pig Culture
View the documentAPPENDIX D - Silver Carp Culture in Sewage Ponds
View the documentAPPENDIX E - General Characteristics of Hungarian Fisheries

3.3 Nursery Ponds

The fry reared in the fry ponds are transferred for further growing into the nursery ponds at the rate of about 100 000 per hectare. The optimal size of the nursery ponds ranges from 1 to 10 ha, but the maximum size should not surpass 30 ha. The water depth should be 1.0 to 1.5 m. The nursery ponds should be arranged in the vicinity of the fry ponds, preferably in a manner to permit direct transfer of the fry to the nursery pond, together with the water from the fry rearing ponds.

The water supplied to the nursery ponds should be both chemically and biologically clean. In general no flow through the ponds is necessary, but provision must be made to compensate for any water losses.

Complete and rapid pond drainage is an essential requirement. For this reason the bottom of the ponds should slope towards the outlet and should be so graded as part of the construction work on the ponds. The body weight of around 100 g is attained in these ponds during 160 to 220 days. Fishing should preferably be made possible from external cropping pits.