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close this bookIndigenous technology knowledge for watershed management in upper north-west Himalayas of India (1998)
close this folderChapter 2 - Soil and water management techniques
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentSources of irrigation water
View the documentConstruction of kuhls (water channels)
View the documentDistribution of kuhl water in fields
View the documentUse of kuhl water for running water mills
View the documentMethods of irrigation
View the documentWater harvesting methods
View the documentMoisture conservation through mulching
View the documentDrainage
View the documentUse of smoke for protecting fruit crops from frost damage
View the documentSoil management
View the documentSoil fertility management
View the documentUse of ash in Ladakh

Use of kuhl water for running water mills

Kuhls are built along the hill gradient for maintaining proper gravity for irrigation and running water mills (Fig. 2.7a & b). Wooden water channels are also used for running water-flour mills. These wooden channels are generally made by making notches at the natural water sources and the water is diverted to the water mill, using the natural gravitational flow of water. Since the topography of the area consists of very high slopes and rocky terrain's, wooden water channels are used at many places as water passes from one place to another.

Granite stones are used for grinding food grains. Long wooden channel placed at steep gradient is used for maintaining the high speed of the water flow. This is necessary for maintaining the high speed of the water mills wheel (Fig. 2.7a/b).

Fig. 2.7a Water mill (outside)

Fig. 2.7a Water mill (inside)

Now a days water mills are very rare. Water mill technology is in an extinct stage, because of power supply availability and less grain production. Food is purchased from cooperative societies or private shops now a days.