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close this bookAgroforestry in the Pacific Islands: Systems for Sustainability (UNU, 1993, 297 pages)
View the documentPreface
Open this folder and view contents1 Introduction
Open this folder and view contents2 Pacific Island agroforestry: Functional and utilitarian diversity
Open this folder and view contents3 Agroforestry in Melanesia: Case-studies from Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands
Open this folder and view contents4 Agroforestry in Melanesia: Case-studies from Vanuatu and Fiji
Open this folder and view contents5 Agroforestry in Polynesia
Open this folder and view contents6 Agroforestry in Micronesia
Open this folder and view contents7 Pacific Island urban agroforestry
View the document8 Agroforestry on smallholder sugar-cane farms in Fiji
Open this folder and view contents9 Institutional agroforestry in the Pacific Islands
Open this folder and view contents10 Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands: Systems for sustainability
View the documentAppendix One hundred Pacific Island agroforestry trees (1)
View the documentAppendix One hundred Pacific Island agroforestry trees (2)
View the documentAppendix One hundred Pacific Island agroforestry trees (3)
View the documentAppendix One hundred Pacific Island agroforestry trees (4)
View the documentAppendix One hundred Pacific Island agroforestry trees (5)
View the documentAppendix One hundred Pacific Island agroforestry trees (6)
View the documentReferences (A-E)
View the documentReferences (F-R)
View the documentReferences (S-Z)
View the documentContributors

Appendix One hundred Pacific Island agroforestry trees (2)

ONE HUNDRED PACIFIC ISLAND AGROFORESTRY SPECIES

1. Acalypha amentacea Roxb. ssp. wilkesiana (Muell.-Arg.) Fosb. EUPHOR BIACEAE
"copper leaf," "Jacob's coat," "beefsteak plant," "fire dragon plant"
syn. A. wilkesiana Muell.-Arg. f. wilkesiana A.C. Smith

Native to Malaysia or western Melanesia; probably an aboriginal introduction to Melanesia and western Polynesia, and a recent introduction to eastern Polynesia and to some atoll countries. Perennial shrub, up to 2 m or higher, with attractive, rather curved and coarsely crisped, dark or bright red, red-green, or green leaves, which are often mottled or variegated with various shades of red, dark pink, white, or bronzy green. Common to abundant in home gardens, often as a hedge or living fence; occasional in rural garden areas and in urban landscaping. Planted ornamental, boundary, and hedge plant; leaves used medicinally; has important ceremonial and spiritual value in Melanesia

2. Adenanthera pavonina L. MIMOSACEAE/LEGUMINOSAE
"red-bead tree," "red sandalwood"

Native to South-East Asia and Malesia; possibly an aboriginal introduction to parts of Melanesia and western Polynesia, and a recent introduction to Hawaii and elsewhere. Medium-sized, deciduous tree, 6-15 m or higher, with bipinnate leaves; greenish white to yellowish, sweetly fragrant flowers; and flattened, linear at first, becoming curved or contorted, brown pods bearing dark or bright red, hard, lensshaped seeds. Common in cultivation and as a protected tree in garden areas and mature fallow forests throughout the Pacific; not generally found on atolls, although two specimens were seen on Funafuti, Tuvalu. Hard, durable wood used in construction and for furniture and firewood; seeds used in necklaces, body ornamentation, and handicrafts; endosperm eaten, mainly by children, the cooked seeds being sold commercially at the market in Western Samoa.

3. Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. MIMOSACEAE/LEGUMINOSAE
"albizia," "siris tree," "woman's tongue"
spp. A. falcataria (L.) Fosb.; A. procera (Roxb.) Benth.

Probably indigenous to tropical Asia, but now Palaeotropical from Africa to Australia; a recent introduction to most Pacific Islands; not found on atolls. Large to medium tree, 10-20 m high, with bipinnate leaves; fragrant yellowish to whitish flowers; and flat, pale, straw-coloured, few-seeded pods. Commonly planted as a shade tree or ornamental in rural areas, plantations, home gardens, and along roadsides; abundantly naturalized along roadsides, stream banks, and in secondary vegetation in Vanuatu, Fiji, and Saipan. Planted ornamental; wood used in general construction, for firewood, and for wood carving; pods used occasionally as cattle feed. A. falcataria and A. procera are both important in some areas, such as in Hawaii, where A. falcataria is widely used in reforestation.

4. Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd. EUPHORBIACEAE
"candlenut"

Indigenous to Malaysia, probably an aboriginal introduction to most of Melanesia, Polynesia, and parts of Micronesia, and a recent introduction into some areas such as

Guam. Tree 10-25 m tall, with light green, downy, palmately-lobed leaves; small greenish yellow to white flowers; and globose fruit containing hard, woody, bony, brownish black seeds with an oil-rich kernel (endosperm). Commonly planted or protected in gardens and on farms, along trails, and in home gardens; often planted as living fencing or as boundary markers; common in mature fallow forest and naturalized in many areas, mainly in disturbed sites, but rarely found in deep forest. Tree features in Polynesian legends and proverbs and is the state tree of Hawaii; planted ornamental or boundary tree; timber used in light construction, canoe hulls, and for firewood; extract of roots, bark, and fruit skin provides black to reddish dye; leaves and flowers used in leis in Hawaii; seed kernels strung together and ignited to provide light; oil from seed kernel used as a hair and skin conditioner; seeds burnt to provide ash used to dye bark cloth black and for tattooing; baked and pounded kernels eaten as a relish in Hawaii; uncooked kernel a strong purgative; oil formerly exported from Hawaii and Fiji.

5. Alphitonia zizyphoides A. Gray RHAMNACEAE
spp. A. incana (Roxb.) T & B ex Kurz; A. neo-calidonica; A. ponderosa Hbd.

Indigenous from Sumatra and the Philippines to the Society Islands (related species found from New Guinea to Hawaii). Medium to large tree, 5-25 m high, with leaves that are bright green above and white tomentose beneath; small white to greenish white flowers; and clusters of small purple fruit. Common in gardens and recent fallow areas, savanna lands, mature fallow forests, open forest, and occasionally in primary forest; often protected when clearing new garden areas; infrequently in home gardens. Durable and straight-grained wood used in construction, for furniture, canoes and canoe paddles, tools and tool handles, digging sticks, and for firewood; bark and leaves used medicinally; leaves used as a soap substitute.

6. Annona muricata L. ANNONACEAE
"soursop"

Native to tropical America; a pre-World War 11 introduction into most of the Pacific Islands. Small tree, rarely over 8 m tall, with bright green oblong or oblongelliptic, glossy leaves; yellowish green flowers; and oblong or ovoid, irregularly kidney-shaped, green to yellowish green fruit, covered with regularly-spaced, short, slightly curved, fleshy spines, and having white, juicy, somewhat acid, aromatic, cotton-like, edible pulp and hard, dark brown to black seeds. Commonly cultivated in home gardens and occasional in rural garden areas on volcanic and raised limestone islands; occasionally naturalized; not found on atolls. Ripe fruit eaten raw, often with ice cream, and made into drinks.

7. Areca catechu L. ARECACEAE/PALMAE
"betel-nut palm," "betel-nut"

Indigenous to southern Asia, Indonesia, and possibly the Philippines; an aboriginal introduction into Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and western Micronesia; a recent introduction into Fiji, Samoa, and other areas. Singlestemmed erect palm, up to 15 m tall, with a slender, pale gray-green trunk with well-spaced, gray-white rings; pinnate fronds; and small, hard, red or orange ovoidoblong fruit. Commonly planted in garden areas and in home gardens in western Melanesia and western Micronesia; often found in dense groves near villages; planted by South Indians in Fiji. Often planted as an ornamental; timber useful, the outer wood used for walling, flooring, or battens; husk and other parts of the fruit used medicinally; kernel (endosperm) of green and mature fruit chewed as an astringent and stimulant, often with the leaves or fruit of betel-pepper (Piper betle) and lime; fruit a major commercial crop for local sale in Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and the Caroline Islands of Micronesia.

8. Artocarpus altilis (Park.) Fosb. MORACEAE
"breadfruit"
syns. A. incisus (Thunb.) L. f.; A. communis Forst.
sp. A. mariannensis Trec.

Indigenous to Malaysia, probably an aboriginal introduction into most of Melanesia, Polynesia, and Micronesia, and a more recent introduction into some of the smaller islands and atolls. Medium to large tree, 10-15 m high, with thick, milky sap; large, variable, entire to deeply lobed leaves; and large, globose to oblong, light green to yellow fruit studded with a grid-like network of tubercles and with creamy white to yellowish, edible flesh. Common to abundant in garden areas, mature fallow forests, village tree groves, and in home gardens on both high islands and atolls; absent on drier atolls, such as Tamana and Arorae in southern Kiribati. Trunk used for canoe hulls and occasionally in house construction; inner bark used to make bark cloth in some areas; sap used for caulking canoes, adhesive for bark cloth, and as chewing-gum; leaves used for wrapping food for cooking, for parcelling of fresh food, and as plates; meristem used medicinally; dried inflorescence burnt as a mosquito repellent; fruit eaten cooked as a major or supplementary staple food in most areas of Polynesia and Micronesia, and as a supplementary staple in most of Melanesia; cooked or raw fruit preserved in pits or by sun-drying. Many named cultivars exist in most areas. A. mariannensis, which is reportedly indigenous to Guam, is also common throughout Micronesia and also present, possibly as an aboriginal introduction, in Tuvalu and Tokelau in Polynesia. Interspecific hybrids, A. altilis x mariannensis, exist in most areas of Micronesia.

9. Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. MORACEAE
"jakfruit," "jackfruit"
syn. A. integer (Thunb.) Merr.

Indigenous to South-East Asia and of ancient cultivation in India; a postEuropeancontact introduction into the Pacific Islands. Tree up to 20 m high, with white, resinous latex; dark green, coriaceous leaves; and a very large, yellow-green to golden-yellow, somewhat oblong-cylindric, occasionally distorted, edible fruit. Commonly planted on smallholder Indian cane farms in Fiji, mostly in home gardens, and occasional in rural gardens and home gardens in other areas of the Pacific. Planted fruit-tree; pulp of ripe fruit eaten raw as a fruit or cooked as a supplementary staple, commonly in curries by Indians in Fiji; sold locally in Fiji; seed edible; heartwood useful for general construction.

10. Atuna racemosa Raf. CHRYSOBALANACEAE
syns. Parinarium laurinum A. Gray; P. glaberrimum Hassk.; Parinari laurina A. Gray; P. glaberrima (Hassle.) Hassk.

Indigenous from Indonesia and the Philippines to Fiji, and to the Caroline Islands in Micronesia; probably an aboriginal introduction from Fiji into Tonga, Samoa, Uvea, and Futuna. Medium to large tree, 5-20 m high, with bright green, ovate to elliptical or lanceolate, somewhat coriaceous, leaves; whitish flowers; and a large, rough, subglobose, light brown fruit. Occasional in garden areas, in home gardens, in mature fallow forest, and common to occasional in lowland forest and grassland thickets; commonly protected when clearing for new gardens. Timber used in light construction for posts, poles, and canoe spars; leafy branchlets, with the leaves attached, used in Fiji to thatch or insulate the outside walls of houses; leaves used for ceremonial decoration of houses in the Solomon Islands; inner bark used medicinally to treat high blood pressure in Fiji and diarrhoea in the Solomon Islands; skins of fruit pounded and shredded to make canoe caulking and to adhere inlay in carvings in the Solomon Islands; crushed seeds used to scent coconut oil in Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, and Uvea.

11. Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex Wendl. POACEAE/GRAMINAE
"common bamboo," "feathery bamboo"

Indigenous to tropical Asia, but an early post-European-contact introduction into most Pacific Islands. Giant perennial, clump-forming, woody grass with segmented green to yellowish stems, up to 15 m tall and 8 cm wide. Commonly planted and naturalized and forming large stands, particularly in alluvial sites throughout the high-island Pacific; also introduced but not established on some atolls. Woody stems widely used in construction, for fencing, handicrafts, making rafts, cages, knives, net-mending needles, fishing poles, floats for fishing nets, fruit-picking poles, irrigation conduits, musical instruments, fencing, containers for food, water, and for cooking food over an open fire, and as fuel wood; parts used medicinally.

12. Barringtonia edulis Seem. BARRINGTONIACEAE/LECYTHIDACEAE
"cut nut," katnut (SI pidgin)
spp. B. novae-hibernia Ltb.; B. procera (Miers) Kunth; B. samoensis A. Gray

Indigenous species of Barringtonia are found throughout Melanesia, from which a range of cultivars have been selected and possibly distributed as far east as Fiji and Samoa prior to European contact. Tree, 6-20 m high, with obovate-oblong to oblanceolate leaves, white, yellow, or pink tinged flowers and long, pendant clusters of green to purple fruits containing a white, edible kernel. Commonly to occasionally planted or protected around villages and in home gardens; occasional in garden areas, in mature fallow forest, and in dense and open forest, or on the edge of forests from sealevel to 400 m; generally protected when clearing for new gardens. Light wood used for canoe paddles, casing, light construction, and for quick-burning firewood; bark used medicinally for stomach ailments and gonorrhoea in the Solomon Islands; mature seed kernels eaten raw or cooked and sold at local produce markets; cooked for storage in the eastern Solomon Islands.

13. Bischofia javanica B1. EUPHORBIACEAE/BISCHOFACEAE
"Java cedar," "koka" (Polynesia, Fiji, and Vanuatu)

Indigenous from India and South China through Indonesia and the Philippines eastward into the Pacific Islands; although probably native as far east as Fiji, it may be an aboriginal introduction to Samoa, Tonga, Uvea, Futuna, and the Cook and Society Islands, and probably a recent introduction into Hawaii. Large dioecious tree, 530 m high, with reddish wood; bright green, trifoliate leaves; many small, greenish or yellowish flowers in panicles; and small, globose fruit. Common in lowland forest, on the forest edge, in thickets, along streams, and in degraded savanna and grasslands; one of the commonest trees in garden areas and mature fallow forest, and occasional in villages and home gardens; although commonly severely pruned or pollarded, it is usually protected or survives during the clearance of new garden areas, due to its high resistance to fire, felling, and ringbarking. Durable and water resistant timber used in light construction, as a favoured house post, and as firewood; red-brown dye and tannin for the tape-making process derived from the bark, and sometimes from the roots; leaves and bark used medicinally; branches cut in Tonga to provide trellising for yams; leaves cooked with, often to tenderize, pork; fruits a favoured food of pigeons, doves, and other frugivorous birds.

14. Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent. MORACEAE
"paper mulberry"
syn. Morus papyrifera L.

Indigenous to China, Japan, and probably Burma and Thailand; an aboriginal introduction throughout Malesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia as far east as Hawaii. Slender, erect shrub or tree, up to 8 m high, with densely hairy branches, milky latex, and tough best fibre; variable ovate to cordate, scabrous, lobed or entire, serrate or toothed leaves; small flowers (although rarely flowering) in axillary clusters; and pulpy, club-shaped fruit. Commonly cultivated in garden areas and around villages from near sealevel in Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa and in some areas of lowland and highland New Guinea; found mainly as a relict in other areas of Polynesia; not reported present in Micronesia or on atolls, except as a recent introduction to Yap; common in abandoned gardens and occasionally naturalized; occasional in home gardens. Often planted in monocultural plots, often following the harvest of yams in Tonga; best fibre treated and pounded to make fibre and bark cloth (tape cloth), which is used un-dyed or variously, often intricately, dyed and/or painted; fibre used for toilet paper, bandages, clothing, ceremonial dress, string bags, cordage, interior decorations, and ornamentation; large painted tape cloths a major item of ceremonial exchange in parts of Papua New Guinea, Fiji, and Polynesia; tape cloth an important commercial and export item in Fiji and Tonga, and to a lesser extent Samoa.

15. Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L. ) Lam. f. RHIZOPHORACEAE
"brown mangrove," "Oriental mangrove"
syns. Rhizophora gymnorhiza L.; B. conjugata (L.) Merr.; B. eriopetala W. & Arn.; B. reedit Bl.

Indigenous to East Africa, the Indian Ocean, and tropical Asia to Tonga and Samoa in western Polynesia and to Nauru and the Marshall and Gilbert Islands in eastern Micronesia; a recent introduction into areas of eastern Polynesia, such as Hawaii. Small to large-sized tree, up to 20 m or higher, with inconspicuously buttressed trunks; thick, leathery, brittle, oblong-elliptic leaves; greenish yellow to bright red flowers; and an elongated spindle-shaped, ribbed, pre-germinated fruit. Abundant in tidal swamps and river mouths, and occasional in landlocked sink-holes and depressions; commonly borders agricultural lands, protecting them from sea spray, storm surge, and salt-water incursion. Planted in coastal areas and near fish-ponds for coastal protection and stabilization; hard and durable wood used in general construction, for tool handles and digging sticks, and considered to be one of the best fuel woods; pre-germinated seed (fruit) eaten cooked, after scraping or grating, washing, and drying (to remove tannins) and sometimes mixed with coconut in Melanesia and Nauru; fruit sold as a vegetable at Honiara Market; extract of bark used as a dye and preservative (tannin) for bark cloth; bark used medicinally as an abortifacient and for treating burns in the Solomon Islands; skin of seed used to prepare a black dye for traditional skirts in Nauru; flowers used in garlands.

16. Cajanus cajan (Mill.) Millsp. PAPILIONACEAE/FABACEAE/ LEGUMINOSAE
"pigeon pea," "red gram," arhar dhal (Hind)
syns. C. indicus Spreng.; C. flavus DC.; Cajan cajan (L.) Millsp.; Cystisus cajan L.

Indigenous to India and South-East Asia; a post-European-contact introduction into Fiji and many other countries. Erect, short-lived, perennial pubescent shrub, 1-3 m or higher, with pinnately trifoliate leaves; bright yellow flowers, marked with dark reddish brown to crimson; and linear-oblong, flattened, inflated pods bearing globose, compressed, cream-coloured to reddish or brownish or speckled seeds. Abundant on sugar-cane farms and occasional in home gardens, especially in the dry zone of Fiji; infrequent in other areas of the Pacific, where it has been widely introduced. Cultivated food plant; a major supplementary staple crop and source of plant protein for the Fiji Indian population; important nitrogen-fixing intercrop or supplementary crop on sugar-cane farms; immature pods cooked as a vegetable and mature seeds dried and cooked as a protein-rich pulse; plant remains used as fodder or green manure; dried stems also occasionally used as fuel.

17. Calophyllum inophyllum L. CLUSIACEAE/GUTTIFERAE
"Portia tree," "Alexandrian laurel," "beach mahogany"

Indigenous from tropical Africa to eastern Polynesia and Micronesia; possibly an aboriginal introduction to some islands. Medium to large, hard-wooded, slow growing tree, 10-20 m tall, with a broad, low-branching, spreading crown; dark green, stiff, leathery leaves; showy, waxy, white, very fragrant flowers; and green to purple-black, globose, hard fruit containing a single, somewhat poisonous, oil-rich kernel. Common to abundant in coastal forest and the dominant component of the pre-phosphate-mining vegetation of Nauru, Banaba (Ocean Island), and Makatea; occasionally planted or protected in inland gardens and home gardens and planted along roadsides. Tree sacred in parts of eastern Polynesia, where it features in legends and was planted around temples; timber favoured for construction, wood carving, and canoe hulls; sticky sap used for caulking canoes; leaves used medicinally; kernel of green and mature fruit crushed to yield oil that is used to scent coconut oil and applied to hair to make it long and black; old, decayed fruit skewered on coconut midribs and burned as traditional Nauruan light; mature fruit burned as a mosquito repellent; the seed kernel (known commercially as "punnai nut") yielding a dark green oil formerly exported from Fiji.

18. Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. f. and Thoms. ANNONACEAE
"ylang-ylang" (Malaya/Indonesia), "perfume tree"
syns. Canangium odoratum (Lam.) Baill.; Uvaria odorata Lam.

Native to South-East Asia, the Philippines, and northern Australia and possibly as far east as the Solomon and Caroline Islands; an aboriginal introduction in parts of

Melanesia and to Polynesia, but a recent introduction to Hawaii and some other smaller islands of the eastern Pacific. Tree, up to 15 m or taller, with a crooked trunk; smooth, grey bark; drooping, brittle branches; very fragrant, drooping, yellowish green turning yellow, spider-like flowers with wavy, linear-lanceolate petals; and oblong, gray-green to black, fleshy fruits containing numerous seeds. Common in home gardens and occasional as a planted or protected tree in garden areas; occasional to common in fallow forests, open forests, and on the edges of forests where it has become naturalized; generally protected when clearing new areas for cultivation. Timber used in general construction, for canoe making, and occasionally for firewood; flowers used in garlands and for scenting coconut oil; leaves and bark used medicinally; of considerable cultural importance throughout Melanesia and Polynesia; used in the commercial production of perfume and perfumed soap in Fiji and of essential oil in the Philippines and Indonesia; fruit a preferred pigeon food.

19. Canarium spp. BURSERACEAE
"canarium almond," "Java almond," "galip nut," "pill nut"
spp. C. decumanum ?; C. indicum L. (syn. C. commune L.); C. lamii Leenhouts; C. salomonense Burtt.; C. harveyi Seem. (syn. C. mufoa Cristoph.); C. vitiensis A. Gray; C. vulgare Leenh.

C. indicum is indigenous to Malaya, Indonesia, and New Guinea, and C. vulgare to Malaya and Indonesia, both are possibly aboriginal introductions into parts of Melanesia and recent introductions into other islands; other species seem to be native to and cultivated in New Guinea and other islands of Melanesia and Polynesia as far east as Samoa and Niue, and possibly aboriginal introductions into some of these areas. Medium to large trees up to 30 or 40 m high; with oddpinnate compound leaves; white to creamy white or yellow, racemose flowers; and ovoid, green to purplish, bluish, or black, hard-shelled fruit containing an oil-rich seed kernel. Commonly planted around villages and in home gardens and common in mature lowland forests, fallow forests, thickets, and in garden areas throughout Melanesia; occasional in Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, and Niue in lowland forest and garden areas. Occasionally used as a shade tree in plantations. Timber suitable for light construction, canoes, bowls, and firewood; rotten logs a source of edible insect larvae; bark used medicinally for chest pains in the western Solomon Islands; edible, oil-rich seed kernels highly prized and constitute a major component of the diet throughout most of Melanesia, except in Fiji; a major item of inter-island trade and sold commercially, often as snack food; often stored either in the shell or after baking and drying; often mixed with staple root crops, added to soups, or eaten with megapode eggs in the Solomon Islands; oil from kernel used for lighting in past.

20. Carica papaya L. CARICACEAE
"papaya, " "pawpaw"

Indigenous to tropical America; an early post-European-contact introduction to the Pacific Islands. Soh-wooded, un- or few-branched, rather palm-like, small, quick growing tree, up to 4 m or higher, with thick, hollow, tapering, nearly smooth trunks or stems with light bark and numerous, almost heart-shaped, leaf-scars; copious, thick, sticky, irritating milky sap; leaves drop as the tree grows; numerous, white or cream-coloured, fragrant flowers; and variably shaped, subglobose or pear-shaped to cylindrical, green turning yellow or orange fruit, with orange to red-orange edible flesh and numerous small, gray-green, mucilaginous seeds. Abundant throughout the Pacific in home gardens and rural crop lands as an intercrop in shifting agricultural systems; planted in monocultural orchards in Fiji, Tonga, and Rarotonga; widely naturalized in fallow areas and waste places; grows well in the calcareous soils of atolls. Cultivated fruit-tree, grown throughout the Pacific for local sale and in some areas, such as Hawaii, Fiji, Tonga, and the Cook Islands, as an export crop; ripe fruit eaten or made into jam; fruit known to be a laxative; green fruit cooked in curries as a vegetable in Fiji; juice and flesh from green fruit (which contains the enzyme papain) used to tenderize pork, beef, and fish; white sap from small immature fruit used as a cure for ringworm; fragrant flowers used in garlands; hollow leaf petioles used by children as "pea shooters" for the fruit of Tournefortia argentea.