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close this bookAgro-forestry in the African Humid Tropics (UNU, 1982, 162 pages)
View the documentForeword
close this folderPrinciples of agro-forestry
View the documentAn identity and strategy for agro-forestry
View the documentTree crop farming in the humid tropics: Some current developments
View the documentApplicability of agro-forestry systems
View the documentAgro-forestry and forest laws, policies, and customs
View the documentAgro-forestry research for the humid tropics
View the documentSummary of discussion: Principles of agro-forestry
close this folderTraditional agro-forestry systems: Prospects for development
View the documentThe role of trees in farming systems in the humid tropics
View the documentForest conservation strategies for tropical Africa
View the documentImpact of agricultural systems and rural development on Nigerian forests
View the documentCrop mixtures in traditional systems
View the documentAgricultural tree crops as a no-tillage system
View the documentTraditional agro-forestry systems in the central African republic
View the documentProspects for agro-forestry in Benin
View the documentSummary of discussion: Traditional agro-forestry systems
close this folderTaungya systems from biologiocal and production viewpoints
View the documentTaungya systems: Socio-economic prospects and limitations
View the documentEstablishment of forest villages in Gabon
View the documentTaungya in Sierra Leone
View the documentTaungya practices in Togo
View the documentDevelopment trends in Taungya systems in the moist lowland forest of Nigeria between 1975 and 1980
View the documentFood crop yield under gmelina plantations in southern Nigeria
View the documentSummary of discussion: Taungya systems from biological and production viewpoints
close this folderCurrent agro-forestry activities
View the documentThe integration of livestock production in agro-forestry
View the documentIntercropping of terminalia superba with cocoa and banana in mayombé, people's republic of the Congo
View the documentAn example of agro-forestry for tropical mountain areas
View the documentIntercropping tree and field crops
View the documentPromising trees for agro-forestry in southern Nigeria
View the documentFood crop yield under teak and cassia siamea in south-western Nigeria
View the documentAgro-forestry possibilities in oil palm plantations in the Ivory coast
View the documentEffect of food crops on tree growth in Tanzania
View the documentSelection of leguminous trees for agro-forestry in Cameroon
View the documentForestry aspects of agro-forestry practice in Nigeria
View the documentSummary of discussion: Current agro-forestry activities
close this folderConsiderations for the future development of agro-forestry
View the documentAgro-forestry production systems: Putting them into action
View the documentAgro-forestry: View from UNEP
View the documentAgro-forestry developments in Kenya: Prospects and problems
View the documentBarefoot agro-foresters: A suggested catalyst
View the documentGliricidia sepium: A possible means to sustained cropping
View the documentThe role of trees in the production and consumption systems of the rural populations of Senegal
View the documentSummary of discussion: Considerations for the future development of agro-forestry
close this folderReports of the working groups
View the documentWorking group on research needs
View the documentWorking group on training and extension
View the documentWorking group on systems management
View the documentReferences
View the documentParticipants and contributors
View the documentOther UNU publications of interest

Summary of discussion: Considerations for the future development of agro-forestry

In discussing the future of agro-forestry the supposed links between agro-forestry and poverty were mentioned. Contrary to what is often believed, those practicing agro-forestry are not necessarily resistant to modernization, nor are they limited to a life of bare subsistence. The case of the Kandy gardeners in Sri Lanka was cited as one example where a stable agro-forestry system can provide both subsistence needs and a substantial cash income. It is probably true that most of the people now practicing agro-forestry are in the lowest income brackets, but one can argue that for this reason alone there should be greater efforts to investigate the possibilities for improving yield. In many cases there simply may not be a feasible, sustainable alternative to agro-forestry.

The suggestion for "barefoot agro-foresters" to encourage agro-forestry practices was welcomed, but it was cautioned that they must have some training. In particular they would have to be familiar with the farming systems approach, even though their basic training might be only in agriculture or forestry.

A final comment was simply that there must be more exchange between the different regions within Africa. Each area has its own experience and its own crops, and much of this information could be of use in other areas. Given the tremendous lack of knowledge about agro-forestry, such an exchange could be considered essential for the understanding and development of agro-forestry.