Working group on training and extension
Training applicable to agro-forestry can be either formal (primary and
secondary schools, technical certificate and diploma courses, and undergraduate
and postgraduate degree programmes) or non-formal (in-service or short-term
In primary and secondary schools, the curricula already contain agriculture.
Agro-forestry principles should be introduced so that agriculture and forestry
are no longer compartmentalized. Emphasis should be placed on the environment
and the role of trees, food crops, and livestock within it. Current teaching
materials need to be revised so that they reflect this emphasis, and practical
work-for example, encouraging pupils to plant trees in the school garden-should
Technical training at agricultural, forestry, and animal sciences colleges or
schools should introduce the concept of agro-forestry as an integrated form of
Undergraduate training should include practical exposure to the multiple use
of land so that students derive an integrated view of land management. Students
of forestry, agriculture, and animal sciences should be brought together in at
least one course on land management which embraces the various disciplines and
includes the concept of agro-forestry. A specialized course on agro-forestry is
not necessary, but agro-forestry should be highlighted in other courses wherever
Postgraduate training, in addition to emphasizing research in agro-forestry,
should incorporate courses on land management. Such courses should stress the
role of agro-forestry and should be offered to students of agriculture, animal
sciences, forestry, etc.
Non-formal training in agro-forestry should be encouraged for all people who
are responsible for the related disciplines, especially the teachers of formal
training courses. In-ervice training can provide professional staff with the
opportunity to gain experience and new ideas, and it may be undertaken on a
South-South basis, sometimes across continents.
Universities should play a key role in non-formal training, as they provide a
favourable environment for it. Research institutes and government departments
could also provide training. Centres which have informed staff, appropriate
infrastructure, research and study facilities, and field experiments should be
used for agro-forestry training. International agencies may provide financial
assistance and help in the organization of such courses. ICRAF is planning to
initiate a programme of in-service training, and the UN University has been
training a limited number of scientists on an international basis since 1978.
Priority should be given to the inclusion of agro-forestry in training at the
technical and non-university levels, as technical personnel carry out the actual
work in the field. The first step is to train, perhaps through non-formal
courses, teachers of these personnel so that they can provide the right type of
leadership. Funding for non-university level training should come from national
governments and, where necessary, international agencies.
Introducing agro-forestry to the people is necessary. Radio programmes,
newspaper articles, posters, and displays at agricultural shows are possible
Each country should form an agro-forestry committee that would include people
from a range of disciplines and interests in land use and include the ministry
of information. This committee would put forward ideas to national information
services or other appropriate channels.
Publicity material, as with the composition of the national agro-forestry
committees, depends on each country's circumstances. Universities should be
enlisted to produce material, which may need translating into local languages,
and could include posters, literature, films and filmstrips, and tapes for
radio. The dissemination of such material could be done by various national
agencies, including cooperative unions, adult education services, and the like.
Demonstration and experimental plots, sited in key locations and worked by
field staff and selected local farmers, are essential. These should be financed
by various national bodies and organized through the national agro-forestry
Motivation of farmers is vital and can be aided by governments through
guaranteed purchases of certain products such as pulpwood.