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close this bookScience and Technology in the Transformation of the World (UNU, 1982, 496 pages)
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentForeword
close this folderOpening addresses
View the documentZivorad Kovacevic
View the documentPavle Savic
View the documentMiroslav Pecujlic
View the documentKinhide Mushakoji
close this folderThe gear-box of priorities
View the documentAnouar Abdel-Malek
close this folderLe nécessaire et le possible dans la formation du mondial (Keynote Address)
close this folderHenri Lefebvre
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentPremière Partie: Le Mondial, Esquisse d'une Analyse
View the documentDeuxième Partie: L'Informationnel et sa Problématique a l'Echelle Mondiale
View the documentConclusion
close this folderSession I: Science and technology as formative factors of contemporary civilization - from domination to liberation
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentReport on session I
close this folderTechnology and society
View the documentRalko Tomovic
View the documentConclusion
close this folderParadigmes scientifiques et auto-détermination humaine
View the documentYves Barel
close this folderScience and the making of contemporary civilization
close this folderJ. Leite Lopes
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentI. The physical image of the world
View the documentII. Science and underdevelopment in Latin America
View the documentIII. Science and dependent development
View the documentIV. Endogenization of science in which society?
View the documentV. The aims of science
View the documentVI. Science for liberation
View the documentNotes
close this folderSession II: Technology generation and transfer - Transformation alternatives
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentReport on session II
close this folderThe collective self-reliance of developing countries in the fields of science and technology
close this folderSlobodan Ristic
View the documentI. General considerations
View the documentII. Co-operation among developing countries in developing national potentials
View the documentIll. The strengthening of the negotiating position of developing countries in science and technology
View the documentIV. Instead of a conclusion
View the documentNotes
close this folderScience and technology in Japanese history: university and society
close this folderKonji Kawano
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentI. Japan before the second world war
View the documentII. The change after the second world war
View the documentIII. The significance of ''the age of local communities''
close this folderLegal aspects of the transfer of technology in modern society
close this folderVestry Besarovic
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentThe relevance of the legal order to the transfer of technological knowledge
View the documentSome proposed measures on the national and international levels
close this folderPhilosophy (concepts) of scientific and technological development
close this folderVladimir Slambuk
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentI. Development and underdevelopment
View the documentII. Definition of some basic terms
View the documentIII. Existing philosophies of scientific-technological development
View the documentIV. Self-reliance
View the documentBibliography
close this folderSession III: Biology, medicine, and the future of mankind
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentReport on session III
close this folderLa maîtrise de la vie: Pour quoi faire?
close this folderBruno Ribes
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentI. Necessite et enjeux
View the documentII. La 'logique' du vivant
View the documentIII. Quoi faire?
close this folderRestructuring a framework for assessment of science and technology as a driving power for social development: a biosociological approach
close this folderYuji Mori
View the documentI. Introduction - The darwinian and ned-darwinian systems
View the documentII. Sociobiology or biosociology? how to view humans and their society
View the documentIII. Three levels of production and consumption
View the documentIV. Needs
View the documentV. Science and technology as cultural phenomena
View the documentVI. The turning point of social development: space and time
View the documentNotes
close this folderHuman aspects of medical sciences: Medical technology and the responsibility of the physician
View the documentLjubisa Rakic
close this folderSession IV: The control of space and power
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentReport on session IV
close this folderToward a clearer definition of the role of science and technology in transformation
close this folderOsama A. El-Kholy
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentI. A view of the problem from within
View the documentII. The view from without
View the documentIII. Toward a clearer definition of the role of science and technology in transformation
View the documentAppendix I.
View the documentAppendix II.
View the documentAppendix III.
View the documentNotes
close this folderScience, technology, and politics in a changing world
close this folderJosé A. Silva Michelena
View the documentI. What kind of transformation?
View the documentII. The nature of the crisis
View the documentIII. World political trends
View the documentIV. The role of science and technology
View the documentV. A proposition
View the documentNotes
close this folderThe technology of repression and repressive technology: The social bearers and cultural consequences
close this folderZoran Vidakovic
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentI. The vicious circle of repressive technology
View the documentII. The main social figures of repressive technology
View the documentIII. Militarization of the economy and science: the birthplace of the metropolitan technocracy
View the documentIV. The genesis of the ''technocratic elite'' in dependent societies
close this folderNuclear energy in Latin America: The Brazilian case
close this folderLuiz Pinguelli Rosa
View the documentI. The Brazilian nuclear programme and the treaty with the federal Republic of Germany
View the documentII. Perspectives on nuclear energy in Brazil
View the documentIII. Nuclear energy and the prestige of national power
View the documentIV. The possibility of latin american nuclear co-operation
View the documentV. The position of brazil regarding nuclear proliferation
View the documentAppendices
View the documentReferences
close this folderSession V: From intellectual dependence to creativity
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentIntroduction
close this folderReport on session V
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentDiscussion
View the documentSummary
close this folderLa apropiación y la recuperación de las ciencias sociales en el contexto de los proyectos culturales endógenos
close this folderGuillermo Bonfil Batalla
View the documentIntroducción
View the documentI. El problema de la creatividad endógena en ciencias sociales.
View the documentII. Conocimiento social, ciencia e ideología
View the documentIII. La formación de una intelectualidad India contemporánea.
View the documentIV. Notas para un proyecto de desarrollo endógeno de las ciencias sociales.
View the documentNotas
close this folderOn the edge of a razor blade: the new historical blocs and socio-cultural alternatives in Europe
close this folderMiroslav Pecuilic and Zoran Vidakovic
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentI. The new janus - Two faces of science and technology
View the documentII. The pathology of power and science
View the documentIII. The new protagonist - social movements and organic intelligentsia
View the documentIV. Dramatic birth of alternatives
View the documentV. Self-reliance and solidarity (autonomy and new universality)
View the documentNotes
close this folderScience and technology in the history of modern Japan: imitation or endogenous creativity?
close this folderTetsuro Nakaoka
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentNotes
close this folderScience and technology as an organic part of contemporary culture
View the documentZvonimir Damjanovic
close this folderJoseph Needham's contribution to the history of science and technology in China
close this folderGregory Blue
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentNotes
View the documentReferences
View the documentGeneral report on the seminar
View the documentAppendix: Position papers
View the documentParticipants
View the documentFrom the charter of the United Nations University

Report on session II

Cuthbert K. Omari

The report of this section is divided into two main parts. The first highlights the main points of the plenary session and the second gives the main points raised during the workshop discussions. The main theme of this section is rural-urban relationship to technology in the transformation of the world. Five papers were presented.

1. The paper by Ristic dealt with the collective self-reliance of the Third World in the development of science and technology. He stated at the beginning that present socio-economic development shows a growing independence and complexity of dynamic changes. Further he stressed that science and technology have been recognized not only as instruments and catalysts of growth but also as vital factors of progress, power, and prestige in every country. However, since 97 per cent of all resources allocated for research and development are still concentrated today in developed countries, this has created a dependence of scientific and technological potentials in developing countries on developed ones. Since there is no value-free science, this affects very much the socio-economic development of developing countries.

He stressed the need for co-operation among the developing countries in developing national potentials. But before such a step is realized, an intercommunication system must be established as one prerequisite. This will help in building a strong relation especially between North and South in a collective way.

Collective self-reliance was called an important instrument in development for two reasons.

It is an instrument for improving negotiations between developing and developed countries, for example by establishing systems of information.

It is an instrument of complementarily in national development. He pointed out that one of the limiting factors in expanding mutual co-operation in different fields, including science and technology, is the scarcity of financial resources.

The paper concluded by stressing the main areas which, according to the author, are very important in the whole question of collective self-reliance. These are resources, strategies for development, management problems, building intellectual creativity, the bridge between research and practice, and better negotiation between the developed and developing countries.

Kawano's paper stressed the fact that Japanese history shows that science and technology were introduced to Japan from Europe long ago, especially before World War II. Since World War II, Japanese society has been influenced by the United States.

It was noted that since the Meiji Restoration government has predominated in the process of industrialization in Japan. However, recently, a new move called "localization" has been stressed not only by the government, but also by people themselves. The aim is to decentralize power and economic activities for the benefit of local populations. Such a move is combined with the desire for a new type of technology that can be controlled through the direct participation of the population - "small decentralized technology." This will involve also policy-making.

The trend is to introduce small-scale industries rather than the existing large-scale modern industries. It is hoped that by doing so the bad side-effects of large-scale industries will be minimized. Also it is within the new trend of developing industries which harmonize with the natural environment.

The paper by Marton dealt with the problem of science and technology in relation to African experience. The paper stressed the fact that science and technology as em pressed in the writings of people such as Fanon, Senghor, and Laroni is the expression of a privileged few.

Science and technology enable men to dominate and control nature and harness it for human development. But man cannot have total control, for to control nature is not an absolute domination. There are side-effects of science and technology; e.g., a car helps to minimize (shorten) time and space in the service of men, but there is the likelihood of accidents, of pollution, etc.

There are two views of science and technology - optimistic and pesimistic. Both see science and technology as a fetish. The optimistic one considers that technology will solve every social problem. Science and technology will dominate men and nature. There is no consideration given to social organization.

The pessimistic view sees the side-effects of science and technology. It brings about alienation and may dehumanize people.

These views were cited to show the predicament of the African when adopting science and technology. The choice is not an easy one. How can an African, for example, adopt science and technology without losing his African identity? Another problem raised was how can an African adopt science and technology for development according to western models of development.

The legal aspect of the transfer of technology was adequately dealt with in a paper presented by Dr. Besarovic. The paper stressed that in developing countries an average 0.7 per cent of the GNP is spent on research while in developed (industrial! countries it is between 1 and 3 per cent on average. Key technology is controlled by multinational corporations and for the benefit of the developed world. The paper stressed that transfer of technology today is one-way only: that is, from developed countries to developing ones. The developing countries lack adequate infrastructure and history of modern technology. Thus developing countries are forced to conform to the existing technological development due to the existing economic systems prevailing in today's world. Intellectual ownership of science and technology becomes the way of transfer - it helps the flow of foreign capital to the developing countries.

It was suggested that laws affecting the transfer of technology must suit national cultures and aspirations.

Stambuk's paper dealt with concepts and philosophy of science and technology. In his paper he suggested that we cannot look at development and underdevelopment from an evolutionary point of view. There is a need for redefinition of the concepts, taking other elements and variables into account.

Also the idea of "intellectual creativity" has some nuances of "progressiveness" and an individualistic tendency. This has a danger. The author suggested that there is a need to develop different technology rather than to "appropriate" technology. This may help when coupled with the concept of self-reliance.

Science and technology must be applicable to the realities of the societies in which they operate. In this way science and technology will become society-oriented and problem-solving processes. This will be possible if societal problems like production level and development are taken into consideration.

The author defined several concepts and terminologies related to his paper.

At the discussion session Abdel-Malek, el-Kholy, Maraj, Khan, Hassan, and Wallerstein made comments and contributions. Questions and points were raised with regard to the transfer of technology in relation to today's world systems. For example, the relation between transfer of technology and the political power structure. It was pointed out that if political power is left out in the process of transfer of technology, there is a problem in realizing the function of science and technology in the society. The decision-makers must be involved in the process of transfer of science and technology.

Also the prevailing contradictions in economic development in the world were pointed out. The in balance not only between developed and developing countries, but also between rural and urban areas in developing countries were pointed out. Also the globalization of cultures and sub-cultures due to the development of worldwide communication systems which are helping the western-oriented cultures and economies to spread.

2. At the workshop group discussions, some elaboration of some points was made.

In relation to the transfer of technology from developed to developing countries it was observed that there is a problem of language. Usually the technological tool or technique developed in western countries has a functional role. There is meaning attached to it. When it is transferred to the developing countries whose language is not the original language in which the technology was invented, it becomes a problem, for the people using it will have no relation to the original meaning of the name given to the tool or the part of the machine. Always the language of invention has a symbolic meaning. This problem of imitation and appropriation was further elaborated by giving examples of African experiences.

(a) Most countries have different languages within one country but if there is one language, transfer may be easier.

(b) The problem of under-population was also noted; this is a problem in relation to the mobilization of productive forces and the marketing system.

It was noted, however, that a country whose traditional technology had reached a certain level might adopt a foreign technology with fewer problems.

In relation to Africa a question was raised as to what extent an African can become modern without losing his/her identity. How one can remain in the past, tradition, without bringing about stagnation in social development? This point was not discussed fully.

It was also pointed out that we are witnessing universalism in our days. People share the same cultures, but this again has its perils. It may bring about conflicts and endanger the survival of men.

The problem of self-reliance in relation to transfer of technology was discussed. It was pointed out that it is impossible to resist science and technology in developing countries, but how can we adopt them without being dominated by the developed countries?

The suggestion was made that the communication system among developing countries should be strengthened. This will help to control information and it is within the area of collective self-reliance in the Third World. From there, then, information can go to the developed countries. This may further help to prevent the side-effects of imitation of science and technology.

The problem is how to change from the interdependency of domination to mutual interdependency.