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close this bookBibliography of Studies of the Energy Cost of Physical Activity in Humans (London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 1997, 162 pages)
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentAcknowledgements
Open this folder and view contents1. Introduction
View the document2. Methods
View the document3. Children and adolescents
Open this folder and view contents4. Adults
View the document5. Elderly
View the document6. Review papers

2. Methods

This comprehensive bibliography of studies of the energy costs of physical activities in humans is based on the published literature over three decades between the years 1966 and 1995. The cut-off date of 1966 was chosen because the earlier published literature related to the energy cost of physical activity has already been synthesized in Durnin and Passmore's classic treatise "Energy, Work and Leisure" published in 1967. Within this broad remit, the inclusion/exclusion criteria used to select studies were:

1) Study design: all studies in which original measurements of energy expenditure, a description of the performed activity, a description of the measurement method, and results were included.
2) Age groups: all age groups (children, adolescents, adults and the elderly) were included.
3) Sex: both men and women were included.
4) Activity type: both natural or habitual activities and standardized activity or exercise performed either in the field or laboratory were included. Standardized activities are defined as those which have been carried out in a laboratory under standardized conditions, some of which may be an attempt to simulate daily activities such as walking or running, while others, such as stepping or weight lifting, have been carried out only for the purpose of estimating physiological or mechanical efficiency.
5) Health status of subjects: only studies of subjects who were healthy and ablebodied were included. Studies of the obese and obese after weight loss were included. Studies of those who were in a disease state, hospitalized or those with a physical disability, such as amputees, were excluded. Studies which examined drug effects on energy metabolism were also excluded.

Studies were identified by systematic hand searches of Index Medicus and Nutrition Abstracts Reviews from 1966 to 1995 inclusive. These were cross-checked by computer searches of the electronic version of Index Medicus, Medline. In the course of searching these sources many review papers were also encountered. The more useful of these have been included in the bibliography in a final section.

The bibliography is arranged in sections by age group, and for adults by activity type and by sex (abstracts with sex unspecified have generally been included in the 'Men' section). Four broad headings of activity type have been used: activities common to everyday life; occupational activities; sport and recreational activities; and standardized activities. Studies of children and the elderly have not been sub-divided by sex and activity type because of the paucity of studies. Within each section, English language publications are listed first arranged alphabetically by author followed by foreign language papers. Original abstracts for all studies are included. Where not available, summaries have been supplied.