|Emerging World Cities in Pacific Asia (UNU, 1996, 528 pages)|
|Part 2. Changing Asia-Pacific world cities|
|Jabotabek and globalization|
Since the middle of the twentieth century urbanization trends in developing countries have accelerated tremendously. As a result, by the beginning of the twenty-first century about half of the world population will be urban. In some industrialized regions such as Europe and North America, the number of urban dwellers will be about four times that of rural dwellers. A high level of urbanization is also experienced by some of the newly industrializing countries such as Korea and Taiwan. At the same time, low-income countries, which will still have the majority of their population living in rural areas, will also experience massive urbanization because of relatively high natural population growth rates and equally high rates of rural-urban migration. National development efforts in these countries will need to concentrate on providing jobs, housing, and services for urban dwellers, as well as obtaining resources (water and power) and disposing of waste. The management of urban development will be a major policy concern in the coming decades (Douglass, 1987). The historical and national development contexts will set the pattern of urbanization and the specific nature of urban issues that will be confronted in the future. The existing patterns of urbanization and national development provide parameters of identified issues and the realm of possible responses.
However, new forces have emerged that also affect urbanization patterns and, therefore, the issues confronted. During the 1980s, new patterns of urban development in the Asia-Pacific region have been observed. These include the emergence of extended metropolitan regions and mega-cities, the internationalization of smaller cities following in the footsteps of larger cities, the increasing role of coastal cities as catalysts for modernization and development, and joint development of a number of cities in different countries (the so-called growth triangles). These patterns are the result of global economic changes and structural adjustments in the Asia-Pacific region, the rise in information technology and the widespread application of the computer, which, in turn, create a new production paradigm based on new technologies, the trend towards the internationalization of production and the division of labour, and the increased roles of urban areas in economic development and international integration.
Within this framework of development it is important to understand the evolving urban system in Pacific Asia, specifically its urban regions or mega-cities, so that future profiles of urban change in the region can be sketched out.
This chapter will examine Jabotabek, the Jakarta metropolitan area in Indonesia, to see how the above-mentioned factors have affected Jabotabek and how Jabotabek has responded.