Cover Image
close this bookEnergy and Protein requirements, Proceedings of an IDECG workshop, November 1994, London, UK, Supplement of the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (International Dietary Energy Consultative Group - IDECG, 1994, 198 pages)
close this folderEnergy requirements of older individuals
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentMethodology for determination of total energy expenditure
View the documentTotal energy expenditure of older individuals
View the documentRelationship between total energy expenditure and physical activity
View the documentEffects of energy balance on nitrogen balance
View the documentSummary of energy requirements in older individuals and recommendations for future research
View the documentReferences
View the documentDiscussion


Blair SN, Kohl HW, Paffenbarger RS, Clark DO, Cooper KH & Gibbons LW (1989): Physical fitness and all-cause mortality: a prospective study of healthy men and women. JAMA 262, 2395/2401.

FAO/WHO/UNU (1985): Energy and protein requirements. Report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation. Technical Report Series 724. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Goran Ml & Poehlman ET (1992): Total energy expenditure and energy requirements in healthy elderly persons. Metabolism 41, 744-753.

Helmrich SP, Ragland DR, Leung RW & Paffenbarger RS (1991): Physical activity and reduced occurrence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. New Eng. J. Med. 325, 147-152.

National Research Council (1989): Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th edn. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Paffenbarger RS, Hyde RT, Wing AL, Lee I-M, Jung DL & Kampert JB (1993): The association of changes in physical-activity level and other lifestyle characteristics with mortality among men. New Eng. J. Med. 328, 538-545.

Paffenbarger RSJ, Hyde PHR, Wing A & Hsieh CC (1986): Physical activity, all-cause mortality, and longevity of college alumni. New Eng. J. Med. 314, 605-613.

Pannemans DLE & Westerterp KR (1995): Energy expenditure, physical activity and basal metabolic rate of eldery subjects. Brit. J. Nutr. 73, 571-581.

Pellett PL & Young VR (1992): The effects of different levels of energy intake on protein metabolism and of different levels of protein intake on energy metabolism: a statistical evaluation from the published literature. In Protein-energy interactions, eds NS Scrimshaw & B Schürch Lausanne, Switzerland: International Dietary Energy Consultative Group.

Prentice AM, Leavesley K, Murgatroyd PR, Schorah CJ, Coward WA & Blaydon P (1988): Is severe wasting in elderly mental patients caused by an excessive energy requirement? Age Ageing 18, 158-167.

Prentice AM (ed.) (1990): The doubly-labelled water method for measuring energy expenditure. Technical recommendations for use in humans. Viena: International Atomic Energy Agency.

Reilly JJ, Lord A, Bunker VW, Prentice AM, Coward WA, Thomas AJ & Briggs RS (1993): Energy balance in healthy elderly women. Br. J. Nutr. 69, 21-27.

Roberts SB (1989): Use of the doubly labeled water method for measurement of energy expenditure, total body water, water intake and metabolizable energy intake in humans and small animals. Can. J. Physiol. Pharm. 67, 1190-1198.

Roberts SB (1995): Influence of age on energy requirements Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62, (Suppl.), 1053S-1058S.

Roberts SB, Dietz W. Sharp T. Dallal GE, Hill JO (1995): Multiple laboratory comparison of the doubly labeled water method. Obesity Research 3 (Suppl.), 3-14.

Roberts SB, Young VR, Fuss P. Heyman MB, Fiatarone M, Dallal GE, Cortiella J & Evans WJ (1990): Energy expenditure and subsequent nutrient intakes in overfed young men. Am. J. Physiol. 259, R461-R469.

Roberts SB, Young VR, Fuss P. Fiatarone MA, Richard B. Rasmussen H. Wagner D, Joseph L, Holehouse E & Evans WJ (1992): What are the dietary energy needs of elderly adults? Int. J. Obesity 16, 969-974.

Sawaya AL, Saltzman E, Fuss P. Young VR & Roberts SB (1995): Dietary energy requirements of young and older women determined by using the doubly labeled water method. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62, 338-344.

Schoeller DA (1988): Measurement of energy expenditure in free living humans by using doubly labeled water. J. Nutr. 118, 12781289.

Schoeller DA, Ravussin E, Schutz Y. Acheson KJ, Baertschi P, Jéquier E (1986): Energy expenditure by doubly labeled water validation in humans and proposed calculation. Am. J. Physiol 250, R823-R830.