|Food and Nutrition Bulletin Volume 12, Number 3, 1990 (UNU, 1990, 82 pages)|
Radioactive fallout in soils, crops, and food. F. P. W. Winteringham. A background review prepared for the FAO Standing Committee on Radiation Effects, the FAO Land and Water Development Division, and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. FAO Soils Bulletin 61. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, 1989. 84 pages.
Part One of this review provides an updated background on behaviour and the significance of radioactive substances released into agricultural, forestry, and fisheries ecosystems. It is written in relation to FAO's interests and responsibilities in scientifically accurate but non-technical language. Part Two is concerned more specifically with soil and crop contamination by radioactive fallout. It is mainly concerned with problems of international significance under peacetime conditions of a sort that are only likely to arise as a result of a major nuclear reactor accident or some unintended nuclear explosion. It is also noted that relatively local problems of soil contamination could arise (and have done so) as a result of other kinds of accidents, for example, the failure of a land-based waste containment facility or the crash of a military aircraft or space vehicle carrying radioactive material. For those seeking more technical information, 216 references are cited.
Nutrition learning packages. Joint WHO/UNICEF Nutrition Support Programme. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1989. (ISBN 92-4154251-9; order no. 1150328) vii + 170 pages. SwF 30; US$24. (Available in English. French and Spanish editions in preparation.)
This book presents nine "packages" of learning materials intended to help health workers acquire skill in presenting the principles and practice of good nutrition to communities. Responding to the most common causes of poor nutrition in developing countries, each learning package follows a problem-oriented approach, featuring questions and answers, checklists, charts, games, stories, tests, and exercises designed to make learning a participatory experience. The learning packages complement the training modules presented in Guidelines for Training Community Health Workers in Nutrition.
The main part of the book consists of the nine learning packages, each focused on a single topic. The packages concentrate on helping trainees learn how to recognize and correct the causes of such common problems as nutrient deficiencies, deficiency-induced diseases, malnourishment, poor childhood growth, and diarrhoeal diseases. Individual topics include the measurement of childhood growth, the promotion of breast-feeding, diets for children and mothers, appropriate nutrition during diarrhoea and other infections, and the recognition and prevention of deficiency diseases, most notably protein-energy malnutrition.
The book gives particular attention to methods of teaching and learning that have proved their capacity to stimulate thinking, discovery, discussion, and the recognition and solving of problems. Learning aids range in nature from a nutrition "snakes and ladders" game to picture recipes for preparing weaning foods, from checklists for testing community attitudes to stories showing the dangers of bottle feeding. All are aimed at involving trainees actively in their own learning.
Diet, nutrition, and health. Edited by K. K. Carroll. McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal, Canada, 1990. 368 pages. US$37.50 (cloth), US$16.95 (paper).
These papers were prepared for a symposium sponsored by the Royal Society of Canada and the Food and Nutrition Board of the US National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council in 1987. Fourteen chapters cover the currently recognized nutrition-related chronic health problems, including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, kidney disease, alcoholism, osteoporosis, and cancer. Ten chapters deal with various aspects of the application of dietary guidelines. The concluding chapter, on the history of mortality, documents the continuing fall in deaths from acute causes and the increase of life expectancy worldwide despite great variation between countries.
The information is authoritatively presented and will be of value to big-medical scientists of all kinds as well as to persons in other disciplines. The book is more concise than the massive 1990 US National Academy of Sciences report Diet and Health, but the conclusions are similar. In addition, it considers the implications of dietary guidelines for various disciplines and sectors.
Official methods of analysis of the AOAC. 15th edition. Edited by Kenneth Helrich. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Va., USA, 1990. 2 volumes, approx. 1,200 pages. Members US$194, outside USA US$199; non-members US$215, outside USA US$220 (includes 5 annual supplement/updates with binder).
This book is an important source of analytical methods used throughout the world. AOAC methods, developed jointly by scientists in industry, government, and universities to meet the requirements of each, are used by laboratories doing analytical work in foods, drugs, cosmetics, pesticides, feeds, fertilizers, air, water, soil, and other materials. The reliability and reproducibility of each official AOAC analytical method has been demonstrated by thorough testing in interlaboratory collaborative studies.
Data based on AOAC methods are universally accepted by the courts. US and other national, state, and provincial laws, regulations, or policy often stipulate the use of AOAC methods, as do commercial specifications. This compendium contains over 1,800 collaboratively tested and approved methods for chemical and micro-biological analysis, each with a step-by-step format which specifies all reagents and apparatus to be used. It gives chemical service (CAS) numbers wherever applicable.
The fifteenth edition contains 143 new and 81 revised or updated methods, including methods using antibody-based test kits, enzyme immunoassay, and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). Other new features are a revised numbering system, publication as two volumes instead of one, and the provision of a looseleaf binder for the annual supplements.
Women in Pakistan: An economic and social strategy. The World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1989. (Order no. 11422) US$13.95.
This report documents women's status in Pakistan and, by using standard socio-economic indicators, shows that the gap between Pakistan and other developing countries has increased over time. It presents a three-part strategy to address the complex interaction between human resource development, women's welfare, and productivity and economic development. Recommendations to improve opportunities for women in Pakistan and steps to remove overt discrimination against women are outlined.