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close this bookThe Impact of Technology on Human Rights: Global Case-studies (UNU, 1993, 322 pages)
close this folder1. Technological impacts on human rights: Models of development, science and technology, and human rights
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentThe definition of the concept of technology
View the documentThe origins of the western technological culture
View the documentEnlightenment, the open industrial society, and human rights
View the documentThe enlightenment model of industrial development
View the documentA critical analysis of the enlightenment model of industrial development (technological imperialism)
View the documentModels of development and the technological factor
View the documentDevelopment, choice, and human rights
View the documentThe ''deconstruction'' of deterministic models of development
View the documentNotes

Notes

1. La declaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen (1789). Article 1. Les hommes naissent et demeurent libres et égaux en droits; les destinations sociales ne peuvent être fondées que sur l'utilité commune. Article 2. Le but de toute association politique est la conservation des droits naturels et imprescriptibles de l'homme; ces droits vent la liberté, la propriété, la sûreté et la réesistance à l'oppression.

2 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, The International Bill of Human Rights (United Nations, New York, 197X), p. 5.

3. C.G. Weeramantry, ea., Human Rights and Scientific and Technological Development (United Nations University, Tokyo, 1990), p. 1.

4. Weeramantry (note 3 above), pp. 2-3.

5. The positive consequences of technological development are also emphasized by Sadako Ogata, "United Nations Approaches to Human Rights and Scientific and Technological Developments" in Weeramantry (note 3 above).

6. C.G. Weeramantry, The Slumbering Sentinels - Law and Human Rights in the Wake of Technology (Penguin, 1983), p. xi.

7. P. Alcorn, Social Issues in Technology - A Format for Investigation (Prentice-Hall, Englewood-Ciffs, N.J., 1986), p. 218.

8. B. Joerges, "Technology in Everyday Lit-e: Conceptual Queries," Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, vol. 18, no. 2 (1988): 22.

9. D. MacKenzie and J. Wajcman, "Introductory Essay," in 1). MacKenzie and J. Wajcman, ea., The Social Shaping of Technology - How the Refrigerator Cot Its Hum (Open University Press, Milton Keynes/Philadelphia, Pa., 1985), pp. 3-4.

10. D. Bell, 'Fine Coming of Post-industrial Society - A Venture in Social forecasting (Basic Books, New York, 1976), p. 20.

11. Bell (note 10 above), p. 28.

12. S. Hill, Competition and Control at Work - The New Industrial Sociology (Heinemann Educational Books, London, 1981), p. 86.

13. J. Habermas, "Technical Progress and the Social-life World," in J. Habermas, cd., Toward a Rational Society - Student Protest, Science and Politics, trans. G.J.J. Shapiro (Heinemann, London, 1971), p. 57.

14. As cited by J.H.J. van der Pot in his Die Bewertung des technischen Fortschritts. Eine systematische Übersicht der Theorien, vol. I (Van Gorcum, Assen-Maastricht, 1985), p. 36.

15. Van der Pot (note 14 above), p. 37.

16. M. Weber, Wirtschaftsgeschichte. Abriss der universalen Sozial und Wirtschaftsgeschichte Duncker & Humblot, 1923), p. 307 ff

17. Van der Pot (note 14 above), p. 60.

18. Van der Pot (note 14 above), p. 64.

19. E.J. Dijksterhuis, De mechanisering van het wereldbeeld (Meulenhoff, Amsterdam, 1980).

20. M. Weber, "Vorbemerkung zu den Gesammelten Aufsätzen zur Religions- Soziologie," in M. Weber, Soziologie. Weltgeschichtliche Analysen. Politik. (Alfred Kröner Verlag, Stuttgart, 1968), p. 340 "Nur im Okzident gibt es 'Wissenschaft' in dem Entwicklungsstadium, welches wir heute als 'gültig' anerkennen." Weber here refers to the mathematical basis of science, the rational proof of statements, systematic empirical bases, systematic classification of law, rational organization.

21. A.O. Herrera, "Science, Technology and Human Rights: A Prospective View," in Weeramantry (note 3 above), chap. 2.

22. S.N. Eisenstadt, Revolution and the Transformation of Societies. A Comparative Study of Civilisations (The Free Press, New York, 1978), p. 178.

23. L. Dumont, Essais sur l'individualisme. Une perspective anthropologique (Editions du Seuil, Paris, 1983), p. 102.

24. P.A. Sorokin, Social and Cultural Mobility (The Free Press of Glencoe, New York, 1964), p. 542.

25. T. Campbell, "The Rights of the Mentally 111," in T. Campbell, D. Goldberg, S. McLean, and T. Mulem, eds., Human Rights. From Rhetoric to Reality (Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1986), p. 126.

26. G. Haarscher, Philosophie des droits de l'homme (Editions de l'Université de Bruxelles, 1987), p. 21. The analysis of the interrelations between the development of industrial society and human rights has been further pursued in: J. Berting. "Gesellschaftliche Entwicklung, Menschenrechte und Rechte der Völker," in H. H. Holz et al. , eds. , "Die Rechte der Menschen," Dialektik- Beitrag zu Philosophie und Wissenschaften, 13 (Pahl-Rugenstein Verlag, Cologne, 1987), pp. 81-106; and J. Berting, "Societal Change, Human Rights and the Welfare State in Europe, " in J. Berting et al., Human Rights in a Pluralist WorldIndividuals and Collectivities (Meckler, Westport, Conn., 1990).

27. J. Berting, "The Goals of Development in Developed Countries," Goals of Development (Unesco, Paris, 1988), pp. 140-181.

28. C. Kerr, The Future of Industrial Societies - Convergence or Continuing Diversity (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass./London, 1983), p. 18.

29. Kerr (note 28 above), p. 44.

30. J.W. Murphy and).T. Pardeck, Introduction to J.W. Murphy end d. Pardeck, eds., Technology and Human Productivity - Challenges for the Future (Quorum Books, New York, 1986), p. xv.

31. J. Ellul, The Technological Society (Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1965), p. 74.

32. C. Calhoun, The Question of Class Struggle - Social Foundations of Popular Radicalism during the Industrial Revolution (Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1982).

33. A. Schaff, "Frontiers of Science and Technology. Vision and Direction of the Future," in ). Berting et al., The Socio-economic Impact of Micro-electronics (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1980), p. 61.

34. E.G. Herder, "Une autre philosophic de l'histoire (1774)" and "Ideen zu einer Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit (1784)." See also F. Jonas, Ceschichte der Soziologie (Rowohlt Taschenbuch, 1968) and "Gesellschaftslchre des deutschen Idealismus", vol. I, pp. 119- 173.

35. R. Bendix, Force, Fate and Freedom - On Historical History (University of California Press, Berkeley/Los Angeles/London, 1984), p. 8.

36. J. Berting, "Structures, Actors and Choices," in J. Klabbers et al., Simulation and Caming: On the Improvement of Competence in Dealing with Complexity, Uncertainty and

Value Conflicts Press, Oxford, 1989), pp. 8-23.

37. A. Johnston and A. Sasson, eds., New Technologies and Development: Science and Technology as Factors of Change: Impact of Recent and Foreseeable Scientific and Technological Progress on the Evolution of Societies, Especially in the Developing Countries (Unesco, Paris, 1986), pp. 25-26.

38. K. Marx, "Zur Judenfrage," in Die Frühschriften (Kröner Verlag, Stuttgart, 1964), p. 190: "Die Teilname am Gemeinwesen, und zwar am politischen Gemeinwesen, ein Staatswesen, bildet ihren Inhalt."

39. E. Durkheim, De la division du travail social, 8th ed. (Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1967).

40. This concept of "collective consciousness" is elaborated in several of Durkheim's works, e.g. Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse, 5th ed. (Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1968).

41. V. Pareto, Traité de sociologic générale. Oeuvres completes, vol. Xll (Librairie Droz, Geneva, 1968), pare. 2067; Les systèms socialistes (Librairie Droz, Geneva, 1964); La transformation de la démocratie (Librairie Droz, Geneva, 1970).

42. M. Weber, "Einleitung in die Wirtsehaftlichkeit der Weltreligionen", in Weber (note 20 above), pp. 350, 437.

43. T. Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class (Viking Press, New York 1922); W.F. Ogburn, On Culture and Social Change (University of Chicago Press, Chicago/ London, 1964); Bell (note 10 above); Kerr (note 28 above).

44. R.K. Merton, "Science and Economy of 17th Century England," Social Theory and Social Structure (The Free Press of Glencoe, 1957), pp. 607-627.

45. C. Tilly, "Shrugging off the Nineteenth Century Incubus," in J. Berting and W. Blockmans, eds., Beyond Progress and Development (Gower Publishing Company, Aldershot, 1986).

46. J. Gershuny, After Industrial Society: The Emerging Self-service Economy (Macmillan, London/Basingstoke, 1978), pp. 4-5.

47. Berting (note 27 above), p. 170 ff.

48. W.F. Oghurn, "Technological Trends and National Policy", Report of the Subcommittee on Technology to the National Resources Committee (US Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1937), p. 10.

49. M. Maurice, F. Sellier, and J.J. Silvestre, Politique d'éducation et organisation industrielle en Prance et Allemagne (Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1982); 1). Gallie, In Search of a New Working Class: Automation and Social Integration within the Capitalist Enterprise (Cambridge University Press, London, 1978); B. Lutz. "Bildungssystem und Beschaftigungsstrukturen in Deutschland und Frankreich. Zum Einfluss des Bildungssystems auf die Gestaltung betrieblicher Arbeitskräftestrukturen," in l. S. F. München, ed., Betrieb, Arbeitsmarkt, Qualifikation (Frankfurt am Main, 1976); H. Kern and M. Schumann, Das Ende der Arbeitsteilung? Rationalizierung in der industriellen Produktion (Verlag C.H. Beck, Munich, 1985); R. Dore, British Fartory-Japanese Factory: The Origin of National Diversity in Industrial Relations (George Allen & Unwin, London, 1973); R.J. Smith, Japanese Society: Tradition, Self and the Social Order (Cambridge University Press, London, 1983); L. Winner, Autonomous Technology: Technics-out-of-Control as a Theme in Political Thought (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass./ London, 1977); L. Hirsehhorn, Beyond Mechanisation: Work and Technology in a Post-industrial Age (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass./London, 1984).

50. P. Grootings, "Conditions and Consequences of the Introduction of New Technol ogy at Work," in A. Francis and P. Grootings, eds., New Technologies and Work: Capitalist and Socialist Perspectives (Routledge, London/New York, 1989).

51. K. Matsushita, "'Why the West will Lose,' extracts from remarks made by Mr Konosuke Matsushita of the Matsushita Electric Industrial Company," in Industrial Participation, Spring 1985, pp. 1, 8.

52. R.B. Reich, "The Quick Path to Technological Preminence," Scientific American, vol. 261, no. 4 (1989): 19-25.

53. M. Crozier, in an interview in Le Monde, December 1989. We are prisoners of a system in which nobody listens to anyone: "La 'nationalité" a priori n'est absolument pas le bon moyen de changer la réalité, celle-ci ne se modifie qu'à travers l'innovation élaborée le plus près possible du terrain."

54. B. Latour, Science in Action (Open University Press, 1987); B. Latour and S. Woolgar, Laboratory Life: The Social Construction of Scientific Fans, Sage Library of Social Research, 80 (Beverly Hills/London, 1979).

55. P. d'lribarne, La logique de l'honneur: Gestion des entreprises et traditions nationales (Editions du Seuil, Paris, 1989).

56. R. Boudon, La place du désordre: Critique des théories du changement social (Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1984).

57. Shigeru Nakayama, "Human Rights and the Structure of the Scientific Enterprise," in Weeramantry (note 3 above), chap. 7.

58. P. Johnson and A. Sasson, eds., New Technologies and Development (Unesco, Paris, 1986), p. 21. See also the report on the Today Symposium on the "Advanced Industrial Societies in Disarray: What Are the Available Choices?" (Institute of Social Science, University of Tokyo, 1989).