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close this bookThe Impact of Technology on Human Rights: Global Case-studies (UNU, 1993, 322 pages)
close this folder3. Technology and human rights: critical implications for Thailand
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentHuman rights
View the documentTechnology
View the documentImplications
View the documentRural development
View the documentAgriculture
View the documentIndustrialization
View the documentUrbanization
View the documentEnvironmental concerns
View the documentThe socialization process
View the documentAssessment
View the documentAppendix 1
View the documentNotes


1. For general reading see C.G. Weeramantry, ea., Human Rights and Scientific and Technological Development (UNU, Tokyo, 1990); G. Brand, "Human Rights and Scientific and Technological Developments," Human Rights Journal, vol. 4 (1971): 351364; R. Diwan, "Transfer of Hard Technologies and Debasement of Human Rights," Human Rights Quarterly, vol. 3, no. 4 (1981): 19-44; M.D. Kirby, "Human Rights - The Challenge of the New Technology," Australian Law Journal, vol. 60 (1986): 170-181; M.D. Kirby, "Human Rights and Technology: A New Dilemma," University of British Columbia Law Review, vol. 22, no. 11 (1988): 123-145.

2. Bangkok Post Mid-year Economic Review (Bangkok, Post, Bangkok, 1990), p.11.

3. For general reading concerning the Thai situation, see Jaran Kosananand, Law, Liberty and Rights in Thai Society (Coordinating Group for Religion and Society, Bangkok, 1985) (in Thai); Saneh Chamarik, The Development of Human Rights in Thailand (Union for Civil Liberties, Bangkok, 1988) (in Thai); The Rights of the Thai Population (Coordinating Committee for Human Rights, Bangkok, 1989) (in Thai); Vitit

Muntarbhorn, Rights and Duties in Contemporary Thailand (Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, forthcoming).

4. This research was completed before the coup d'├ętat in Thailand in February 1991.

5. Vitit Muntarbhorn, "Press for Freedom," Far Eastern Economic Review, 30 August 1990, p. 20

6. Vitit Muntarbhorn, "Human Rights and the Development Policies of Asian Nations," paper presented at the Conference on Human Rights and Foreign Policy, Columbia University, New York, June 1988.

7. UN GA Res. 41/128, 4 December 1986.

8. UN Doc. E/3447/Rev.l, pare. 90.

9. UN Doc. E/CN.4/1334, pare. 27

10. R.S. Merrill, "The Study of Technology," in D.L. Sills, ed. International Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, vol. 15 (Macmillan, New York, 1968), p. 576, as cited by H.V. Perlmuller and T. Sagafi-Ngad, International Technology Transfer- Guidelines, Codes and a Muffed Quadrilogue (Pergamon Press, 1981), p. 5.

11. F.R. Root, "The Role of International Business in the Diffusion of Technological Innovation," Economic and Business Bulletin, vol. 20, no. 4 (1968): 17-24, as cited by international Technology Transfer (note 10 above), p. 5.

12. Perlmuller and Sagafi-Nejad (note 10 above), p. 6.

13. Technology for Development (UN ESCAP, Tokyo, 1984), p. 3.

14. Mingsarn Santikarn, Technology Transfer (Singapore University Press, Singapore, 1981), p. 6.

15. Santikarn (note 14 above), p. 6.

16. Santikarn (note 14 above), p. 7.

17. Santikarn (note 14 above), p. 7.

18. Negotiation on an International Code of Conduct on the Transfer of Technology (UNCTAD, 1980), p. 12.

19. UNCTAD (note 18 above), p. 12.

20. UNCTAD (note 18 above), p. 12.

21. Narong Rattana, "Technology Transfer to Rural Areas," Technology: Quarterly Dissemination Documents, vol. 5, no. 1 (1984): 1-20, 13 (in Thai).

22. Boontan Doktaisong, Appropriate Technology for Thai Rural Development (Odeon Store Press, Bangkok, 1987), p. 219 (in Thai).

23. Science and Technology Policies: Evolution and Operation (Ministry of Science, Technology and Energy, Bangkok, 1988), pp. 18-19.

24. A statement by the then Prime Minister of Thailand, Prem Tinsulanonda, exemplified the open arms attitude towards the role of foreign investment in 1984, as reported in the Bangkok Post, 8 July 1984, p. 1: "Thailand has had no negative experience with multinational corporations, although I am aware that opinions differ on their role in other countries. They can make substantial contributions in transferring technology and management know-how to local entrepreneurs."

25. The 1978 Constitution has the following provision on technology, research and development: "Section 61: The state should encourage researches in arts and sciences and should promote the application of science and technology in the development of the country."

26. Industrial Property (Laws and Treaties), May 1980, Text 1-000, pp. 001-012. For comments, see Thailand Business Legal Handhook (International Legal Counsellors/Board of Investment, Bangkok, 1984).

27. See note 26 above.

28. See note 26 above.

29. Collection of Laws Pertaining to Investment Promotion (Board of Investment, Bangkok, 1983).

30. Manual for Requesting Reduction of Tariffs on Machinery, Materials and Equipment to Save Energy and Protect the Environment (Ministry of Science, Technology and Energy, Bangkok, 1988), pp. 9-40 (in Thai).

31. Manual for Loan Applications for the Revolving Fund for Research and Development of Technology (Ministry of Science, Technology and Energy, Bangkok, 1986) (in Thai).

32. Fifth National Economic and Social Development Plan (National Economic and Social Development Plan, Bangkok, 1981), p. 278.

33. GA Res. 35/56, 5 December 1980, annex, pare. 95.

34. Training Manual for Basic Minimum Needs Indicators in Rural Areas (Community Development Department, Bangkok, 1989) (in Thai).

35. See note 34 above, annex, pp. 19-20.

36. See further, The Quality of Life Project 1985-87 (National Economic and Social Development Board, Bangkok, 1987), Manual for Utilisation of Basic Minimum Needs Indicators (Gor Chor Chor Song Kor) (Community Development Department, Bangkok, 1989). Cf. Compendium of Social Development Indicators in the ESCAP Region (UN ESCAP, n.d.).

37. See note 34 above, p. 30.

38. Basic Minimum Needs and Services for Children (National Youth Bureau, Bangkok, 1990) (in Thai). The indicators include nutritional needs, physical needs, mental needs, educational needs, cultural needs, occupational needs, and needs concerning political rights and duties.

39. Pilop Potipruck, "The Death of Thai Farmers and Agriculture," Matichon Newspaper, 26 February 1987, pp. 6-7 (in Thai).

40. "Directions for Agricultural Development," Economic and Social Journal, vol. 25, no. 2 (1988): 18-24 (in Thai).

41. The Sixth National Economic and Social Development Plan (National Economic and Social Development Board, Bangkok, 1987), pp. 149- 167.

42. Tamrong Prempridi et al., Research Projects on Appropriate Technology for Rural Development (Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, n.d.).

43. Somnuk Siplung, "The National Plan Abandons Agriculture," Thai Rath Newspaper, 5 January 1988, p. 8 (in Thai).

44. Compendium of Plant Species (Ministry of Agriculture, Bangkok, 1987) (in Thai).

45. Mingsarn Kaosa-Ard et al., eds., Agricultural Information and Technological Change in Northern Thailand (Thailand Development Research Institute, Bangkok, 1989), p. 31.

46. Kaosa-Ard et al. (note 45 above), p. 36.

47. The Use of Technology by Farmers in Rice Cultivation (Ministry of Agriculture, Bangkok, 1987), p. 44 (in Thai).

48. See note 47 above, p. 45.

49. Kaosa-Ard et al. (note 45 above).

50. Kaosa-Ard et al. (note 45 above).

51. See note 47 above, p. 116.

52. See note 47 above, p. 116.

53. Prempridi et al. (note 42 above).

54. Prempridi et al. (note 42 above).

55. Prempridi et al. (note 42 above).

56. Prempridi et al. (note 42 above), p. 35

57. For further reading on land problems, particularly the link with national forestry, and the changing pattern of landholdings, see "The Management of Agricultural Resources," Economic and Social Journal, vol. 25, no. 5 (1988): 2-29 (in Thai); Thailand Natural Resources Profile (Thailand Development Research Institute, Bangkok, 1987), chap. 2.

58. Costs and Conditions of Technology Transfer through Transnational Corporations (UN ESCAP/UNCTC, 1984).

59. Technology Strategy and Policy for Industrial Competitiveness: A Case Study of Thailand (World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 33.

60. D. Menasveta and K.I. Matics, "Technical Assistance Rendered by the Federal Republic of Germany to Thailand (1961-75) in Marine Fisheries Research and Development," Report of the Working Party on the Promotion of Fishery Resources Research in Developing Countries (FAO, Rome, 1980), pp. 193-211.

61. See note 32 above, p. 60.

62. See note 32 above, part IV, chap. 2.

63. See note 32 above, p. 63.

64. See note 32 above, p. 215.

65. Kosit Panpiemras, ea., Rural Industrialisation in Thailand (National Economic and Social Development Board, Bangkok, 1988), p. 73.

66. World Bank (note 59 above), p. 24. The World Bank study notes: ''sub-contracting has not developed to the extent necessary to play a role in the industrial deepening process in Thailand. Weaknesses in the quality of supporting industries, especially in the engineering fields, may be expected to continue as important stumbling blocks. Basic support industries are extremely limited in two areas: 1. traditional technologies such as foundry, forging, metal fabrications; and 2. newer technology industries such as powder metallurgy, ceramic coating, precision mechanics, fine chemicals and engineering plastics. In a country such as Thailand where smaller enterprises are so numerous, subcontracting could be an important transmitter of technology. "

67. See note 29 above.

68. The operation of this and other financial institutions concerning small-scale industries is elaborated in Akira Kuroda and Shuji Kasajima, The Development Strategies for the Small and Medium Scale Industries in Thailand (Ministry of Industry, Bangkok, 1987).

69. See note 68 above.

70. Sompong Patpui, The Rights of Slums (Thai Khadi Institute, Bangkok, 1987) (in Thai).

71. See note 41 above, pp. 289-290.

72. See note 41 above, p. 292.

73. See note 41 above, p. 297

74. See note 41 above, pp. 321-322.

75. See note 41 above, pp. 111-112; Thira Phatumvanit and Suthawan Sathirathai, "Thailand: Degradation and Development in a Resource-rich Land," Environment, vol. 30, no. 1 (1988): 11-32.

76. Phatumvanit and Sathirathai (note 75 above), pp. 135-145.

77. The Nam Choan Dam and World Sanctuary (Lovers of Forests Group, Bangkok, 1988) (in Thai).

78. Royal Thai Government Gazette, vol. 88, no. 43, 23 April 1971, reprinted by the De partment of Mineral Resources, Bangkok, pp. 1-38.

79. Royal Thai Government Gazette, vol. 106, no. 9, part 8 (special issue), 14 January 1989 (in Thai).

80. See note 41 above. The Sixth Plan notes (p. 112): "At present 33 million rai of national reserve area has been encroached upon, representing 25.8 per cent of total reserves. There are no title deeds for approximately 50 per cent of agricultural land, which creates uncertainty regarding ownership on the part of the farmers. This ownership problem has also impeded the growth of efficiency in land use because there is no incentive for farmers to improve and maintain the land. As a result, the crop yield tends to decrease. These factors, together with an increase in population, contribute to additional encroachments on forest land for cultivation purposes, which, in turn, leads to further destruction of forest areas and more land ownership problems."

81. See note 41 above, p. 137; also W. Tips et al., Implementation Problems of Agricultural Land Reform in Thailand (Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, 1987).

82. Eucalyptus Plantation in Thailand (Ministry of Agriculture, Bangkok, 1986); Siam Rath Weekly, 2-15 April 1989, pp. 16-43 (in Thai).

83. For leading article and text, see International Law: News and Information from Asia and the Pacifc (Bangkok, UNESCO, June 1990).

84. Chalermsak Wanichsombat, "Administration of Environmental Impact Assessment in Thailand," paper presented at the Expert Group Meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment of Development Projects, Bangkok, August 1988. See further, Environmental Impact Assessment: A Guideline for Planners and Decision Makers (UN ESCAP, Bangkok, 1985).

85. The current situation (1990) is documented in First National Assembly on Child Development: Report (Office of the Prime Minister, Bangkok, 1990).

86. The Situation concerning Science and Technology in Thailand (Ministry of Science, Technology, and Energy, Bangkok, 1987), p. 81 (in Thai).

87. For the situation in Asia, including Thailand, see Vitit Muntarbhorn, "Teaching Programmes and Systems in Human Rights in Asia and the Pacific," paper presented at the UNESCO International Congress on Human Rights Teaching, Information and Documentation, Malta, August-September 1987.

88. Vitit Muntarbhorn, "Practical Teaching of Human Rights," Human Rights Today and Tomorrow: The Role of Human Rights Commissions and Other Organs (LAWASIA Human Rights Committee, Manila, 1988), pp. 280-309.

89. Alternative Human Rights for Thai Youth: A Report (Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 1986).

90. Summary Report of the Village Mediation Project (Chulalongkorn University/ Department of Public Prosecutions, Bangkok, 1988) (mimeo).

91. Report of the Legal Literacy/Dissemination Project for Thai Agricultural Youth (Law Communicators Group/Child Welfare Association, Bangkok, 1990) (mimeo).

92. World Bank (note 59 above), p. 44.

93. World Bank (note 59 above), p. 45.

94. World Bank (note 59 above), p. 30.

95. See further, Poverty: World Development Report 1990 (World Bank/Oxford University Press, New York, 1990), chap. 4.

96. See further, Weeramantry (note I above).