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close this bookThe Impact of Technology on Human Rights: Global Case-studies (UNU, 1993, 322 pages)
close this folder4. Human rights and technological development: Eastern Europe and Poland
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentPreface: objective and methodology of the project
View the documentGeneral evaluation of Eastern Europe as a political region
View the documentThe special nature of the polish empirical approach to human rights
View the documentInteraction between human rights and technological development in Poland
View the documentInterrelationship between the basic character of human rights and development of traditional technologies
View the documentInterrelationship between human rights and advanced technologies
View the documentConclusions
View the documentNotes
View the documentBibliography


1.. See A.P. Movcharn, Prava chelouyeka i mezhdunarodnye otnoskenya (Moscow, 1982) and E.V. Klimova, Mezhdunarodnoye sotruduichestvo i prava chelovyeka (Moscow, 1981).

2. K. Marx, "Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844," MED, vol. 1, p. 626 (in Polish).

3. K. Marx, "Theses on Feuerbach," MED, vol. 3, p. 7 (in Polish).

4. See P. Kowalski, "Human Needs and Human Rights" (Warsaw, 1989), Ossolineum, pp. 44-45 (in Polish).

5. Marx (note 2 above), p. 590.

6. Jan Berting, in chapter I of this volume, writes: "Marx himself rejected at least part of the human rights laid down in the Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen, which he regarded as liberal rights based on a false concept of the nature of man. Marx stressed the importance of the social nature of man and of the priority of socio-economic rights in a world in which sharp socio-economic inequalities prevail. Marxism neglected to develop its own theoretical basis of this conception of human rights. "

7. See B. Hawrylyszyn, Road Maps to the Future (Oxford, 1980).

8. Kowalski (note 4 above), p. 152.

9. Kowalski (note 4 above), p. 154.

10. Kowalski (note 4 above), pp. 148-151.

11. Commissioner for Civil Rights Protection (Warsaw, 1989), p. 39 (in Polish).

12. See "Evolution of the Institution of the Commissioner for Civil Rights Protection (Ombudsman) in the Contemporary World," in Commissioner for Civil Rights Protection (note 11 above).

13. See "Law on the Commissioner for Civil Rights Prorection," in Commissioner for Civil Rights Protection (note 11 above), p. 56.

14. See R. Bradley, "The Role of the Ombudsman in relation to the Protection of Citizen's Rights," Cambridge Law Journal, vol. 39, no. 2 (1980).

15. See G.F. Caiden, ed., International Handbook of the Ombudsman (London, 1983), vols. 1 and 2.

16. See J. Pajestka, "Determinants of Progress; Factors and Interrelationships of Socioeconomic Development," PWE (Warsaw, 1975) (in Polish).

17. Unfortunately, in practice the above interrelationships are rarely of a linear character.

18. Berting (note 6 above) states: "science and technology have strongly determined economic development."

19. Pajestka (note 16 above), p. 186.

20. See J. Machowski, "Freedom of Scientific research as a Human Right" Zycie szkoly wyzszej, no. 10 (1989): 23-38 (in Polish).

21. See G. Monkiewicz, J. Monkiewicz, and J. Ruszkiewicz, "Foreign Scientific and Technological Policy of Poland," Ossolineum (Warsaw, 1989), p. 67 (in Polish).

22. Moukiewicz et al. (note 21 above), p. 102.

23. Berting (note 6 above) describes traditional technologies as "industrial technology."

24. Human Rights and Scientific and Technological Developments (UN, 1982), pp. 43-44.

25. See note 24 above.

26. See note 24 above.

27. See note 24 above, p. 84.

28. See Ryszard Dyoniziak, "Reform-oriented Opinions of steel Industry Workers," Gospodarka i demokrarja, no. 4 (1988) (in Polish).

29. Berting (note 6 above) describes advanced technologies as "post-industrial technologies. "

30. See Miroslaw Dude, "Can Poland Do without Nuclear Power engineering Wiedza i zyrie, no. 5 (1990) (in Polish).

31. Julian Liniecki, "Power Engineering and Health and the environment, Wiedza i zycie, no. 5 (1990) (in Polish). The author is the director of the Institute of Radiology in Zódz, head of the Nuclear Medicine Unit, member of the International Commission of Radiological Protection and expert of the UN Committee for Research into the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR).

32. According to Cesare Silvi, an Italian nuclear power engineering expert (Adranced Technology and East-West Cooperation, Institute for East-West Security Studies, New York, 1987), Eastern and Western Europe show an important similarity in the type of reactor adopted. The Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) dominates throughout both Eastern and Western Europe. As of December 1985, 16 VVER-440 PWR type reactors were operating and 23 were under construction in East European countries while 70 PWR were operating and 26 were being built in Western Europe. European nuclear power programmes envisage greater use of this type of reactor. Before the Chernobyl accident, about 180 plants of this type were scheduled to operate in Europe by the year 2000, 120 of them in Western Europe.

33. February 1989.

34. See Silvi (note 32 above), p.24. An attempt at estimating material losses incurred by the Soviet Union was made in the American PlanEcon Report, vol. 2, no. 19-20, of 16 May 1986. According to that study, "the most direct cost of the Chernobyl accident to the Soviets: the loss of the reactor, the cost of the clean-up operation, health care costs, low agricultural output and relocation and other costs was in the region of 2.7-4.3 billion, which was roughly equivalent to about 0.25-0.39 per cent of the Soviet rouble GNP."

35. See E. Biderman, Nuclear Power Engineering - Man - environment, (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, 1989) (in Polish).

36. See H. Steckler, "Economic, Ecological and Social Aspects of New technologies and Decisions Concerning their Application and Development," Zagaduienia nautoznawstwa, nos. 3-4 (1988) (in Polish).

37. See note 24 above, p. 45

38. See "The Polish Miracle," Gazeta wyborcza, no. 126 of 2 November 1989 and no. 77 of 31 March 1990 (in Polish).

39. According to estimates the number of I million microcomputers will be reached in the Soviet Union only at the end of 1990.