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close this bookThe Impact of Technology on Human Rights: Global Case-studies (UNU, 1993, 322 pages)
close this folder5. The impact of modern science and technology on human rights in Ethiopia
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View the documentFirearms in rural and traditional ethiopia and human rights
View the documentTraditional work of women, science and technology, and human rights
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Notes

1. J.D. Clark, "Africa in Pre-history: Peripheral or Paramount?" Man (New Series), vol. 10 (1975): 175-198; J.D. Clark, Tools and Ourselves, Seventh Raymond Dart Lecture delivered on 4 July 1979 (Witwatersrand University Press, Johannesburg, 1981); J.D. Clark and H. Kurashina, "New Plio-Pleistocene Archaeological Occurrences from the Plain of Gadeb, Upper Webi Shebele Basin, Ethiopia, and a Statistical Comparison of the Gadeb Sites with Other Early Stone Age Assemblages," Anthropologie, vol.18 (1980): 161-187; and N. Kraybill, "Pre-agricultural Tools for the Preparation of Food in the Old World, " in C. A. Reed, ed., Origins of Agriculture (Mountain Publishers, The Hague, 1977), pp. 485-521.

2. J.D. Clark (note I above, 1975 and 1981).

3. Tewolde Berhan Gebre Egziabher, "Land Management and Changes in Land Tenure in Ethiopian History" (Asmara University, Ethiopia, 1989) (mimeo).

4. H.S. Lewis, A Galla Monarchy (University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wis., 1965), pp. 53-54.

5. Bahry, "Zena Galla," in Ignatius Guidi, ed., Corpus scriptorum Christianorum orientalium, vol. 20, Scriptores Aethtopici, tomus 3 (Secretariat du Corpus SCO, Louvain, 1961), pp. 229-230; and Tewolde Berhan Gebre Egziabher, "The Environmental Variables Which Led to the Ecological Crisis in Ethiopia," Coenosis, vol. 4, no. 2 (1989): 61-67.

6. Tewolde Berhan (note 5 above and under preparation).

7. F. Alvares, The Prester John of the Indies (Hakluyt Society, London, 1961), p. 501.

8. R.M. Basset, "Etudes sur l'histoire d'Ethiopie", Journal asiatique, August-September 1881.

9. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie, in F.M.E. Pereira, ed., Chronica de Sussenyos (Lisbon, 1892).

10. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), p. 270.

11. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), p. 291.

12. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), pp. 309-319.

13. Alvares (note 7 above), pp. 175 and 202-204.

14. Tekle Tsadq Mekuria, Ye Ityopia Tarik ke Atsie Lne Dngl 'ske Atsie Tewodros (A History of Ethiopia from Atse Lbne Dngl to Atse Tewodros) (Berhanenna Selam Printing Press, Addis Ababa, 1961), pp. 149-151 (in Amharic).

15. Paulos Nyonyo, Ye Ahmed Gran werera (The War between Ethiopia and Italy) (Bole Printing Press, Addis Ababa, 1981), pp. 158-172 (in Amharic).

16. C.W. Isenberg and J.L. Krapf, The Journals of C.W. Isenberg and J.L Krapf (Frank Cass & Co. Ltd, London, 1968), pp. 64-65.

17. Faculty of Law, Consolidated Laws of Ethiopia (Artistic Printers Ltd, Addis Ababa, 1972).

18. For example, R.A. Sedler, "The Development of Legal Systems: The Ethiopian Experience," Iowa Law Review, vol. 53, no. 3 (1967): 562-635.

19. Faculty of Law (note 17 above).

20. J.C.N. Paul and C. Clapham, Ethiopian Constitutional Development - A Sourcebook (Faculty of Law, Addis Ababa University in association with Oxford University Press, 1972), pp. 376-379.

21. Paul and Clapham (note 20 above).

22. Council of State, "The Constitution of the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia", Negarit gazeta, year 47, no. 1 (1987).

23. For example, V.P. Nanda, J.R. Scarritt, and G.W. Shepherd Jr., eds., Global Human Rights: Public Policies, Comparative Measures and NGO Strategies (Westview Press, Boulder, Colo., 1981), pp. 174-176.

24. Council of State (note 22 above).

25. Council of State (note 22 above).

26. Council of State (note 22 above).

27. Nanda et al. (note 23 above), p. 196.

28. Council of State (note 22 above).

29. Ministry of Pen, "Civil Code of Ethiopia," Negarit gazeta, Extraordinary Issue no. 2 (1960).

30. Ministry of Pen, "Penal Code of Ethiopia, " Negarit gazeta, no. I (1957); Ministry of Pen (note 29 above); and Ministry of Pen, "Criminal Procedure Code of Ethiopia," Negarit gazeta, year 21, no. 7, Extraordinary Issue no. I (1961).

31. Council of State, "Proclamation of Establishment of the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia No. 2/1987," Negarit gazeta, year 47, no. 2 (1987).

32. Ministry of Pen, "Penal Code" (note 30 above).

33. Prime Minister's Office, "Proclamation 214/1981," Negarit gazeta, year 41, no. 2 (1981).

34. Ministry of Pen (note 29 above), Articles 2035, 2126 and 2127.

35. Anon, in W.E. Conzelman, ed., Histoire de Galawdewos (Paris, 1895), pp. 24-25.

36. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), pp. 6, 133-135, 256, and 265.

37. Anon, in G.W.B. Huntingford, trans. and ed., The Glorious Victories of Amda Seyon, King of Ethiopia (Oxford University Press, London, 1965), p. 52.

38. See note 37 above, pp. 80 and 87.

39. C.J. Poncet, "A Voyage to Aethiopia Made in the Year 1698, 1699 and 17(X)," in William Foster, ed., The Red Sea and Adjacent Countries at the Close of the Seventeenth Century (Kraus Reprint Limited, Nendeln/Lichtenstein, 1967), p. 129 (reprinted from the Hakluyt Society publication of 1949).

40. Anon, in Stanislas Kur, ed., "Actes de Samuel de Dabra Wagag," Corpus scriptorum Christianorum orientalium, vol. 287, Scriptores Aethiopici, tomus 57 (Secretariat du Corpus SCO, Louvain, 1968), p. 26.

41. Anon (note 37 above).

42. Poncet (note 39 above), p. 129.

43. Tekle Tsadq Mekuria, The Pillage by Ahmed Gran (Frank Cass & Co. Ltd., London, 1967), p. 224.

44. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), pp. 28-29.

45. Anon (note 37 above), pp. 57, 80, and 87.

46. Anon (note 35 above), pp. 24-25.

47. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), pp. 6 and 195.

48. S. Rubenson, The Survival of Ethiopian Independence (Heinemann, London, 1978), p. 365.

49. Anon (note 37 above), p. 57.

50. Sinoda and Knfe Michael, in R.M. Basset, cd., "Etudes sur l'historie d'Ethiopie," Journal asiatique, April-May-June 1881, p. 331.

51. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), p. 332.

52. Anon (note 37 above), p. 68.

53. For example, F. Alvares (note 7 above), pp. 420 and 429; Anon (note 37 above), pp. 24-25; Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), pp. 87, 125, 134, 168, 196, 202, and 221-232.

54. J.B. Coulbeaux, Historie politique et religieuse de l'Abyssinie, vol. II (Guenther, Paris 1929), p. 93; Tekle Tsadq Mekuria (note 43 above), pp. 186 and 397.

55. Sinoda and Knfe Michael (note 50 above), pp. 327-332.

56. R.K.P. Pankhurst, ed., The Ethiopian Royal Chronicles (Oxford University Press, Addis Ababa, 1967), p. 67.

57. Tekle Tsadq Mekuria (note 43 above), pp. 459-460.

58. J. de Castanhoso, Le règne de Yohannes (Imprimerie Jeanne d'Arc, Romans (Drome), 1972), p. 22.

59. Sinoda and Knfe Michael (note 50 above), p. 335.

60. Anon (note 35 above), pp. 96-102.

61. Anon (note 35 above), pp. 103-109.

62. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), p. 91.

63. ).H. Speke, What Led to the Discovery of the Nile (Frank Cass & Co. Ltd, London, 1967), p. 34

64. For example, Sinoda and Knfe Michael (note 50 above), p. 362.

65. Sinoda and Knfe Michael (note 50 above), p. 355.

66. Anon, in K. Conti Rossini, ed., "Historia Regis Sarsa Dengel (Malak Sagad)," Corpus scriptorum Christianorum orientalium, vol. 20, Scriptores Aethiopici, tomus 3 (Secretariate du Corpus SCO, Louvain, 1961), pp. 85-96.

67. Anon (note 35 above), p. 102.

68. Tekle Tsadq Mekuria (note 43 above), p. 459.

69. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), p. 91.

70. Sinoda and Knfe Michael (note 50 above), p. 355.

71. Coulbeaux (note 54 above), p. 3.

72. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), p. 6.

73. Poncet (note 39 above), p. 127.

74. For example, Alvares (note 7 above), p. 186.

75. Sinoda and Knfe Michael (note 50 above), p. 348.

76. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), p. 100.

77. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), p. 281.

78. Lewis (note 4 above), p. 103.

79. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), p. 256.

80. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), p. 72.

81. Sinoda and Knfe Michael (note 50 above), p. 373.

82. Sinoda and Knfe Michael (note 50 above), p. 356.

83. For example, Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), pp. 80-81, 90-91, 174, 247, 256, and 322-325; Sinoda and Knfe Michael (note 50 above), p. 355.

84. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), p. 209.

85. Pankhurst (note 56 above), pp. 77, 83, and 90; Anon (note 66 above), pp. 128-135.

86. Poncet (note 39 above), p. 136.

87. Sinoda and Knfe Michael (note 50 above), p. 338.

88. Anon (note 35 above), pp. 62-63.

89. Anon (note 35 above), p. 65.

90. Anon (note 35 above), pp. 75-76.

91. Sinoda and Knfe Michael (note 50 above), p. 337.

92. Sinoda and Knfe Michael (note 50 above), p. 338.

93. Anon (note 35 above), pp. 33.

94. Bahry (note 5 above), pp. 223-231.

95. Sinoda and Knfe Michael (note 50 above), p. 337.

96. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), p. 84.

97. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), pp. 104-107.

98. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), pp. 117-122.

99. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), pp. 108 and 141-142.

100. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), pp. 223-224.

101. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), p. 225.

102. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), p. 231.

103. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), pp. 84, 104-105, 106, 10;-107, 117120, 121-122, 141-142, 149, and 223-224.

104. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), pp. 117-120 and 121-122.

105. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), p. 260.

106. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), p. 6.

107. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), pp. 12, 23, and 37-38.

108. Sinoda and Knfe Michael (note 50 above), p. 370.

109. ). de Coursac, Le règne de Yohannes (Imprimerie Jeanne d'Arc, Romans (Drome), 1926), p. 111.

110. Tekle Tsadq Mekuria (note 14 above), pp. 264-265.

111. Tekle Tsadq Mekuria (note 14 above), p. 113.

112. Rubenson (note 48 above), p. 41.

113. Rubenson (note 48 above), p. 41.

114. Isenberg and Krapf (note 16 above), p. 341

115. Isenberg and Krapf (note 16 above), p. 321.

116. Isenberg and Krapf (note 16 above), p. 348.

117. Isenberg and Krapf (note 16 above), p. 353.

118. Isenberg and Krapf (note 16 above), p. 400.

119. Isenberg and Krapf (note 16 above), p. 482.

120. Isenberg and Krapf (note 16 above), p. 38.

121. Isenberg and Krapf (note 16 above), p. 41.

122. Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), p. 185.

123. For example, Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), p. 132; Sinoda and Knfe Michael (note 50 above), p. 337.

124. Isenberg and Krapf (note 16 above), p. 348.

125. S. Gobat, Journal of Three Years' Residence in Abyssinia (Negro University Press, New York, 1969), pp. 281-283.

126. M. Parkyns, Life in Abyssinia (Frank Cass & Co. Ltd., London, 1966), pp. 125-135; S. Gobat (note 125 above), p. 417.

127. Rubenson (note 48 above), pp. 169-171.

128. Rubenson (note 48 above), p. 172.

129. Rubenson (note 48 above), p. 168.

130. Rubenson (note 48 above), p. 139.

131. H. Dufton, A Narrative of a Journey through Abyssinia in 1863 (Negro University Press, Westport, Conn., 1970), pp. 166-167 and 183.

132. Rubenson (note 48 above), pp. 255-268.

133. De Coursac (note 109 above), p. 59.

134. Tekla Tsadq Mekuria (note 14 above), p. 24.

135. Rubenson (note 48 above), p. 260.

136. Rubenson (note 48 above), pp. 275-276 and 364.

137. Rubenson (note 48 above), p. 365.

138. De Coursac (note 109 above), p. 123.

139. De Coursac (note 109 above), p. 322.

140. Rubenson (note 48 above), p. 398.

141. Rubenson (note 48 above), pp. 141-142 and 301-302.

142. See the appeal by Emperor Haile Slassie to the Western democracies on 13 September 1935: "Italy, after having obtained from the powers their refusal to permit us to purchase arms and ammunition which we do not manufacture and which are necessary for our defense, seeks to discredit the Ethiopian people and their government before world opinion." Lewis Copeland and Lawrence W. Lamm, The World's Great Speeches, 3rd enlarged ed. (Dover Publications, 1973), p. 470.

143. Anon (note 66 above), pp. 65-66.

144. Basset (note 8 above), p. 113.

145. Basset (note 8 above), p. 118.

146. Rubenson (note 48 above), pp. 168- 169.

147. Rubenson (note 48 above), p. 168.

148. For example, Tekle Tsadq Mekuria (note 14 above), p. 265; H. Dufton (note 131 above), p. 92.

149. For example, Mhrka Dngl and Tekle Sllasie (note 9 above), pp. 280-282.

150. Pankhurst (note 56 above), p. 102.

151. J.A. Quirin, "The Beta Israel (Felasha) in Ethiopian History: Caste Formation and Culture Change, 1270-1868," Ph.D. thesis (School of Graduate Studies, University of Minnesota, 1977).

152. Anon (note 40 above), p. 26.

153. For example, Isenberg and Krapf (note 16 above), p. 151.

154. Dufton (note 131 above), pp. 166-167.

155. Dufton (note 131 above), pp. 166-167.

156. De Coursac (note 109 above), p. 49; Rubenson (note 48 above), p. 139.

157. Rubenson (note 48 above), pp. 364-365.

158. H. Salt, A Voyage to Abyssinia and Travels into the Interior of that Country (Frank Cass & Co. Ltd., London, 1967), p. 348.

159. Merid Wolde Aregay, "Technology in Medieval Ethiopia," paper presented for the conference on Ethiopian feudalism, March 1976, Institute of Ethiopian Studies, Addis Ababa (mimeo).

160. W.A. Shack, The Gurage a People of the Ensete Culture (Oxford University Press, London, 1969), p. 42.

161. Shack (note 160 above), p. 9.

162. Shack (note 160 above), pp. 9-10.

163. Lewis (note 4 above), p. 24.

164. Lewis (note 4 above), pp. 92, 119- 120.

165. Salt (note 158 above), p. 321.

166. Rubenson (note 48 above), p. 256.

167. Merid Wolde Aregay, "Society and Technology in Ethiopia, 1500-1800,"Journal of Ethiopian Studies, vol. 16 (1983): 127-143.

168. Bahry (note 5 above).

169. Bahry (note 5 above).

170. M. de Almeida, "Ethiopia and its People", in C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, trans and eds., Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593-1646 (Hakluyt Society, London, 1954), p. 45.

171. Anon (note 37 above), p. 108.

172. Lewis (note 4 above), pp. 19-58.

173. Sinoda and Knfe Michael (note 50 above), p. 348 Pankhurst (note 56 above), p. 102.

174. Sinoda and Knfe Michael (note 50 above), p. 352.

175. Gobat (note 125 above), p. 147.

176. Gobat (note 125 above), p. 336.

177. Sinoda and Knfe Michael (note 50 above), p. 405.

178. Lewis (note 4 above), pp. 66 and 113.

179. Gobat (note 125 above), pp. 263 and 279.

180. Gobat (note 125 above), pp. 147-149.

181. Sinoda and Knfe Michael (note 50 above), p. 403.

182. Gobat (note 125 above), p. 465.

183. Gobat (note 125 above), p. 473.

184. Lewis (note 4 above), p. 85.

185. Gobat (note 125 above), p. 473.

186. Gobat (note 125 above), p. 390.

187. Gobat (note 125 above), p. 462.

188. Gobat (note 125 above), p. 463.

189. For example, Gobat (note 125 above), pp. 281-282.

190. Sinoda and Knfe Michael (note 50 above), p. 408.

191. Isenberg and Krapf (note 16 above), pp. 507-508.

192. D. Crummey, "Theology and Political Conflict during the Zamana Masafent: The Case of Este in Bagemder," paper presented at the ninth International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, 26-29 August 1986, Institute of African Studies, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

193. Gobat (note 125 above), pp. 336 and 143-144.

194. Crummey (note 192 above).

195. Gobat (note 125 above), p. 390.

196. Gobat (note 125 above), p. 462.

197. Meri McCoy-Thompson, "Women's Bill of Rights," World Watch, vol. 3, no. 3: 283-301.

198. Protein-Calorie Advisory Group (PAG) of the United Nations, Women in Food Production, Food Handling and Nutrition, with Special Emphasis on Africa (E;AO, Rome, 1979), p. 60.

199. C.O. Sauer, Seeds, Spades, Hearths and Herds: The Domestication of Animals and Foodstuffs (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1969).

200. United Nations Development Programme, Evaluation Study No.3- Rural Women's Participation in Development (UNDP, New York, 1980), p.6.

201. PAG (note 198 above), pp. 113-115.

202. PAG (note 198 above), pp. 113-115.

203. PAG (note 198 above), pp. 7-13 and 113-115.

204. UNDP (note 200 above) , p. 82; World Bank, Recognising the "Invisible" Woman in Development: The Worid Bank's Experience (World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1979), pp. 8 and 15.

205. E. Boserup, Women's Role in Economic Development (St Martin's Press, New York, 1980).

206. Boserup (note 205 above).

207. K.H. Friedrich, A.V.E. Slangen, and Solomon Bellete, Initial Farm Management Survey 1972-1973 (Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis Ababa, 1979), p. 37 (mimeo),

208. A.O. Ellman, An Agricultural and Socio-economic Survey of South Sudan Refugee Settlements and Surrounding Areas in Gambela Awraja, Ethiopia (Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis Ababa, 1972), pp. 21-95 (mimeo).

209. Shack (note 160 above), pp. 5, 30, and 50-82.

210. For example, Birgit Negussie, "Studies in Comparative and International Education No. 13 - Traditional Wisdom and Modern Development," Ph.D. thesis (Institute of International Education, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, 1988), pp. 96-97; Ellman (note 208 above), pp. 21-95; Friedrich et al. (note 207 above).

211. Friedrich et al. (note 207 above).

212. Friedrich et al. (note 207 above).

213. PAG (note 198 above), pp. 9-12.

214. For example, Shack (note 160 above), pp. 52-68.

215. Ellman (note 208 above), p. 53.

216. Shack (note 160 above), p. 63.

217. Shack (note 160 above), pp. 64-66.

218. Ellman (note 208 above), p. 37.

219. Ethiopian Herald, 1990, and discussions with the Ethiopian engineer.

220. PAG (note 198 above), pp. 73-75.

221. Negussie (note 210 above), p. 30.

222. Gobat (note 125 above).

223. Negussie (note 210 above), p. 103.

224. Negussie (note 210 above), p. 153.

225. World Bank (note 204 above), p. 9.

226. Negussie (note 210 above), p. 106.

227. Negussie (note 210 above), p. 96.

228. Negussie (note 210 above), p. 97.

229. Quated in PAG (note 198 above), p. 69.

230. UNDP (note 200 above), pp. 6, 11, 24, and 144-146.

231. World Bank (note 204 above), p. 1.

232. PAG (note 198 above), pp. 122-123.

233. World Bank (note 204 above), p. 8.

234. PAG (note 198 above), p. 123.

235. World Bank (note 204 above), pp. 6-7; UNDP (note 200 above), p. I 1.

236. UNDP (note 200 above), p. 89.

237. UNDP (note 200 above), pp. 7-8.

238. UNDP (note 200 above), p. 10

239. World Bank (note 204 above), p. 12.

240. World Bank (note 204 above), p. 11; UNDP (note 200 above), p. 9.

241. UNDP (note 200 above), p. 8.

242. World Bank (note 204 above), p. 1; Negussie (note 210 above), p. 107.

243. World Bank (note 204 above), p. 1.

244. UNDP (note 200 above), p. 16.

245. Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR), Second Progress Report (March 1978-April 1980) (Agricultural Engineering, Home Sciences, and Food Technology Department, Addis Ababa, 1981), pp, 34-36 (mimeo); and Institute of Agricultural Research, Agricultural Engineering Department Progress Report 1980-1981 (Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis Ababa, 1982), p. 5 (mimeo).

246. UNDP (note 200 above), pp. 25 and 39.

247. World Bank (note 204 above), p. 4.

248. Negussie (note 210 above), p. 107.

249. World Bank (note 204 above), p. 1.

250. PAG (note 198 above), p. 157.

251. PAG (note 198 above), p. 153.

252. PAG (note 198 above).