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close this bookTechnological Independence The Asian experience (UNU, 1994, 372 pages)
close this folder7. The lessons from Asia: From past experience to the future
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentChina
View the documentIndia
View the documentRepublic of Korea
View the documentThailand
View the documentPhilippines
View the documentJapan
View the documentThe geopolitical environment and the local socio-economic situation
View the documentFormal S&T structure and industry
View the documentThe rural-urban relationship
View the documentInformal and formal sectors
View the documentNew generic technologies
View the documentSocial shaping of technology
View the documentConscious shaping of the technology
View the documentExisting agendas for shaping technology
View the documentConcluding remarks
View the documentNotes


1. Edgar Snow, Edgar Snow's China: A Personal Account of the Chinese Revolution, New York: Random House, 1981.

2. W. Joseph, "A Tragedy of Good Intentions - Post Mao Views of the 'Great Leap Forward'," Modern China 12 (1986), 419-457.

3. Richard Baum, ea., China's Four Modernizations: The New Technological Resolution, Boulder, Colo: Westview Press, 1980.

4. S. Arunachalam, "Why is Indian Science Mediocre?," Science Today, New Delhi, February 1979; S. Arunachalam and S. Markanday, "Science in the Middle Level Countries: A Bibliometric Analysis of Scientific Journals of Australia, Canada, India and Israel," Journal of Information Science (North Holland) 6 (1981), no. 3.

5. Personal communication from former Japanese Minister of Education, Michio Nagai.

6. Mark Crawford, "Japan's US R&D Role Widens, Begs Attention," Science 223 (1986); Eliot Marshall, "School Reforms Aim at Creativity," Science 235 (1986).

7. A.K. Rice, Ahamadebad Experiment, London: Tavistock, 1953.

8. Jon Sigurdson, ea., Measuring the Dynamics of Technological Change, London: Pinter Publishers, 1990.

9. Susantha Goonatilake, "Inventions and Developing Economies," Impact of Science on Society, Autumn 1987.

10. Esther Dyson, "Hacker's Rights," Forbes, 7 January 1991.

11. Shin-ichi Takezawa, "The Blue Collar Workers in Japanese Industry," International Journal of Comparative Sociology 10 (1969): 178-195.

12. See Fumio Kodama, "Japanese Innovation in Mechatronics Technology," in Sigurdson (note 8 above).

13. Bio Technology: Economic and Wider Impacts, Paris: OECD, 1989, pp. 52-55.

14. Amiya K. Bagchi, "The Differential Impact of New Technologies: A Framework for Analysis," ILO Working Papers no. 167, Vienna, 1987, p. 52.

15. UNCTAD, Trade and Development Aspects and Implications of New and Emerging Technologies: The Case of Biotechnology, Geneva: UNCTAD, 1991.

16. The Times of India, 18 June 1990.

17. Donald Mackenzie and Judy Wajcman, The Social Shaping of Technology, Philadelphia, Pa.: Open University Press, 1985.

18. "New Information Technologies and Development," ATAS Bulletin no. 3, New York: UN Center for Science and Technology for Development, p. 5.

19. C.A. Bowers, The Cultural Dimensions of Educational Computing, New York: Teachers College Press, 1988.

20. See note 19 above.

21. Karl H. Ebel,"Manning the Unmanned Factory," International Labour Review 128 (1989), no. 5; Karl H. Ebel, "Computer Integrated Manufacturing: The Social Dimension," Genera: ILO, 1990, p. 7.

22. Pamela S. Kramer and Sheila Lehman, "Mismeasuring Women: A Critique of Research on Computer Ability and Avoidance," Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 16 (1990), no. 1: 171.

23. Erik Baark and Andrew Jamison, "Biotechnology and Culture: The Impact of Public Debates on Government Regulations in the US and Denmark," Technology in Society 12 (1990): 27-44.

24. A. S. Bhalla et al., Blending of New and Traditional Technologies, Dublin: Tycooly, 1984.

25. Celestous Juma, The Gene Hunters: Biotechnology and the Scramble for Seeds, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989.

26. See the American journal Philosophy East and West (Honolulu) for numerous examples.

27. See, for example, Rick Briggs, "Knowledge Representation in Sanskrit and Artificial Intelligence," AI Magazine 6 (1985), no. 1; Rick Briggs, "Shastric Sanskrit as a Machine Translation Interlingua," paper presented at workshop on "Pannini and Artificial Intelligence," Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 1986.

28. Donnelley Strachan, "Medicine, Morality, and Culture: International Bioethics," Hastings Center Report, Special Supplement, July/August 1989.

29. Carol A. Hoffman, "Ecological Risks of Genetic Engineering of Crop Plants," BioScience, 40 (1990), no. 6.

30. Zbigniew Bankowski, "Ethics and Health," World Health, April 1989.

31. Dorothy Nelkin and Lawrence Tan Credi, Dangerous Diagnostics: The Social Power of Biological Information, New York: Basic Books, 1990.

32. Daniel Callahan, "Religion and the Secularization of Bioethics," Hastings Center Report, Special Supplement, July/August 1990.

33. James P. Wind, "What Can Religion Offer Bioethics?" Hastings Center Report, Special Supplement, July/August 1990.

34. See note 2# above.

35. Daniel Callahan and Courtney S. Campbell, "Theology, Religious Traditions, and Bioethics," Hastings Center Report, Special Supplement, July/August 1990; Courtney S. Campbell, "Religion and Moral Meaning in Bioethics," Hastings Center Report, Special Supplement, July/August 1990.

36. See note 28 above.

37. Kajikawa Kin-ichiro, "A New Field Emerges," Hastings Center Report 19 (19#9), no. 155.

38. Marge Beree, "The Perfection of Offspring," New Scientist, 14 July 1990, pp. 58-59; Jean Bethke Elshtain, "Reproduction Ethics," Utne Recorder, Iss. 44, March 1991.

39. Peter Brodner, "Towards the Anthropocentric Factory," Tokyo International Workshop on Industrial Culture and Human Centered Systems, Tokyo Kezai University, 1990.

40. Werner Wobbe, "Anthropocentric Production Systems in the Context of European Integration," Tokyo Intemational Workshop on Industrial Culture and Human Centered Systems, Tokyo Kezai University, 1990.

41. Felix Rauner, "Changing World of Industrial Culture," Tokyo International Workshop on Industrial Culture and Human Centered Systems, Tokyo Kezai University, 1990.