The research objective of this study is to present China's
experience in attempting to meet its target of "self-reliance." The research was
carried out at both a macro and a micro level. Special attention is given to
S&T policy, which is centred around the following: (a) the role of
government; (b) the socio-economic background to S&T policy; (c) planning
and coordination of S&T policy with respect to socioeconomic development;
and (d) policies to encourage the efficient use of inputs to the S&T system,
e.g. financial and human resources.
The Chinese study used a systems approach. The S&T system,
economic system, social system and international system were studied as
interrelated parts of an integrated whole. The system is a dynamic one, which
changes with geographical location and time (fig. 1). We started by reviewing
the past, and moved on to analysing the past and current status of S&T and
its prospects for the future (fig. 2). The S&T system was analysed according
to a life-cycle concept (fig.