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close this bookTechnological Independence The Asian experience (UNU, 1994, 372 pages)
close this folder3. The Republic of Korea
View the documentPreamble
View the documentHistory
View the documentDevelopment policies and strategies from the 1960s to the 1980s
View the documentThe plans
View the documentImpact on the agricultural and industrial sectors
View the documentScience and technology in korea before the 1960s
View the documentThe role of science and technology in recent development
View the documentScience and technology and the exogenous environment
View the documentEducation and training
View the documentResearch and development
View the documentReassessment of the policy and strategy
View the documentAchievements in industrial development
View the documentThe electronics industry as a case-study
View the documentSelf-reliance targets at each stage
View the documentProblems and issues
View the documentFuture plan for self-reliance of science and technology
View the documentThe long-term goals and strategy of national development
View the documentRole of science and technology for future development
View the documentLong-term goal of S&T development
View the documentSumming-up and regional cooperation
View the documentRegional cooperation
View the documentBibliography

Summing-up and regional cooperation

In order to modernize the economy, the Republic of Korea adopted an unbalanced growth strategy for industrialization. Anticipated imbalances became apparent in many areas, for example between urban and regional development, between large-scale and small-scale businesses, and between export and domestic industries.

To redress the urban bias, increasing income in rural areas has become an important issue for the country. To this end, the mechanization of farming has been recently promoted in order to increase agricultural productivity. Opportunities for off-farm income generation have also been expanded through the creation of small-scale industrial estates in rural areas.

Large-scale enterprises have reached the level at which they can take care of themselves, and hence assistance in recent years has been directed towards the promotion of small and medium-scale enterprises. As a result, the latter are increasing both production and exports. This effort will be continued.

In order to balance export and domestic industries, a programme of industrial structural adjustment has been devised to effect a shift in the direction of technology-intensive industries. Here technology development emerges as most important. At their present level of development, Korean industries should possess enough indigenous capability to overcome the growing protectionism in technology and to increase their bargaining power for its importation.