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close this bookTechnological Independence The Asian experience (UNU, 1994, 372 pages)
close this folder5 The Philippines
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentThe historical roots of technological dependence
View the documentS&T policy: rhetoric and reality
View the documentCase-studies
View the documentCase-study results
View the documentTechnological dependence: nature and consequences
View the documentS&T in the Philippines: inputs and outputs
View the documentThe vicious circle paradigm
View the documentThe anatomy of technology transfer
View the documentThe search for models: learning from Asia
View the documentVision and commitment
View the documentToward a leap-frogging strategy
View the documentNotes
View the documentBibliography
View the documentAppendix 1
View the documentAppendix 2. major achievements of S&T in the Philippines


1, Alvin Toffler, The Third Wave, New York: Bantam Books, 1980.

2. Olivia C. Caoili, History of Science and Technology in the Philippines, Quezon City: University of the Philippines, 1986.

3. See note 2 above.

4. Kunio Yoshihara, Philippine Industrialization: Foreign and Domestic Capital, Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1985.

5. UNESCO, Manual for Surveying National Scientific and Technological Potential, UNESCO, 1975

6. Jose Velasco and Arcega Baens, National Institute of Science and Technology 1901-1982. A Facet of Science Development in the Philippines, Manila: NSTA. 1984.

7. A. Lichauco, "The IMF-World Bank and the International Economic Order," Impact 11(1986): 410-420.

8. Romeo Bautista and John Power and Associates, Industrial Promotion Policies in the Philippines, Philippine Institute of Development Studies, 1979.

9. UNESCO, National Science Policy and Organization of Research in the Philippines, UNESCO, 1970.

10. See note 8 above.

11. MECS and NSTA, Science Education Development Plan, vol. 1, Manila, 1985. 12. Ibon Facts and Figures, no. 81.

13. See note 11 above.

14. Frances Stewart, "International Technology Transfer: Issues and Policy Options," Staff Working Paper no. 344, Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1979.

15. Pablito M. Ong, Scientific and Technological Self-Reliance and the Copper Mining Industry, September 1985.

16. See note 14 above.

17. Francisco Reyes, Science and Technology in Philippine Society, Manila: UST Publications, 1972.

18. C. Dahlman, and L. Westphal, ´´Technology Effort in Industrial Development- An Interpretative Survey of Recent Research," in F. Stewart and J. James, eds., The Economics of New Technology in Developing Countries, London: Westview Press, 1982.

19. F. Sagasti, Technology, Planning, and Self-reliant Development: A Latin American View, New York: Praeger Publishers, 1979.

20 F. Bradbury, ed., Technology Transfer Practice of International Firms, Sijthoff & Noordhoff, 1978.

21. UNIDO, Technological Self-reliance of the Developing Countries: Towards Operational Strategies, Development and Transfer of Technology Series, no. 15, Vienna, 1981.

22. ESCAP/UNCTC, Costs and Conditions of Technology Transfer through Transnational Corporations, Publication Series B. no. 3, Bangkok: ESCAP, 1986.

23. See note 14 above.

24. See note 4 above.

25. Lilia Bautista, "Transfer of Technology Regulations in the Philippines," Geneva, 1980 (UNCTAD/ TT/32).

26. See note 9 above.

27. See note 20 above.