|Ocean governance: Sustainable development of the Seas (UNU, 1994, 369 pages)|
|Conclusions and recommendations|
1. Ocean governance should be examined as a possible pattern for the governance of other global concerns such as energy, food, atmosphere, outer space, environment, climate, and science and technology. The emerging institutional framework for sustainable development of ocean space and resources, which are the common heritage of mankind, must be part of and could be a model for global, regional, and national governance in the twenty-first century.
2. At each level: national, regional, global institutions must be restructured to reflect the shift from a sectoral to an intersectoral approach to planning and decision-making. Ocean policy must be integrated horizontally, across disciplines, departments, and specialized agencies, and between the public and private sectors, as well as vertically, across levels of governance, national, regional, and global, in a coherent system.
3. Human resources development, including the strengthening of scientific capabilities, must be a priority of national governments and should be pursued through national efforts as well as through regional and global cooperation. Without the capability of monitoring and of scientific research, ocean management and the conservation of the environment, responses to climate change, sealevel rise or other global environmental issues remain illusory.
4. The enhancement of the scientific and technological capabilities of developing countries is essential if they are to be active partners in the development and conservation of ocean space and its resources.
5. Environmental security is an essential component of common and comprehensive security, which has economic, environmental, political, and military dimensions. Measures of denuclearization of ocean space, naval arms control, cooperation of navies for peaceful purposes, and other confidence-building measures, must be taken at regional and global levels to complement the advancement of the peaceful uses of ocean space. The use of force makes havoc of development as well as of environment, as has been tragically demonstrated by recent events.