|Ocean governance: Sustainable development of the Seas (UNU, 1994, 369 pages)|
|Conclusions and recommendations|
6. States should integrate sustainable ocean development and the supporting research into their general development strategy. Improved knowledge and information are essential as a basis of management if States are to respond to the new challenge of integrating development and environment. An active planning infrastructure and inter-ministerial coordinating mechanisms could contribute to integrated policy-making in ocean affairs. Marine scientists, coastal communities, and producers and consumers of ocean-related goods and services should be involved in the policy-making process. They might be consulted through periodic national ocean assemblies.
7. Developed and developing countries should complete their legislation dealing with all uses of ocean space and harmonize it with the provisions of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea.
8. Developing countries should endeavour to strengthen their scientific and technological infrastructures. For this purpose a percentage of their educational budget should be earmarked. Marine research and development should, in a balanced way, serve to enhance understanding of ocean resources and processes, as a basis for their management as well as for international negotiations and agreements.
9. Marine science teaching on the sustainability of ocean space and its resources should be strengthened at all levels, from primary to adult education: in curricula at university level; in adult education programmes for ocean users (fishermen, seamen, workers in the oil industry, coastal engineers) and for managers of ocean affairs.
10. Shortcomings of the present systems of national income accounting, such as the omission of the costs of pollution and depletion of natural resources, should be rectified. Ongoing activities aimed at incorporating environmental costs and benefits into national accounts should be extended to include the marine sector. This should also lead to the establishment of global ocean accounts for marine resources beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.