|Ocean governance: Sustainable development of the Seas (UNU, 1994, 369 pages)|
|Conclusions and recommendations|
18. A global forum should be established within the United Nations system where all ocean issues may be discussed periodically, with the participation of all governments and relevant international bodies. Such a forum must also involve the economic and non-governmental sector. It could take a number of forms: Special Sessions of the United Nations General Assembly; a wider mandate to the envisaged periodic meetings of States Parties to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea; a standing committee of ECOSOC; or some other form. But such a United Nations Ocean Assembly is essential for supervising and coordinating the institutional framework for ocean governance.
19. As part of the collective security system, the United Nations should have the capability to observe peace arrangements in the oceans. Such a peacekeeping component could also be deployed in emergencies as those outlined in paragraph 17 above, as well as be used for naval inspection of trade embargoes by the Security Council.
20. Global regimes as envisaged in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea are essential for the effective management of the living resources of the high seas; this requirement is most explicitly stated in the case of the highly migratory species. The 1946 Convention for the Regulation of Whaling and the Convention for Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, provide useful models in this regard. Negotiation on new instruments for other highly migratory species and high sea fisheries should be initiated immediately.
21. International assistance, which relies almost completely on unpredictable voluntary contributions, is woefully inadequate. A new approach to international public finance is needed. Systems of international taxation should be introduced. A tax of just 0.1 per cent on international trade, for example, could yield over $3 billion per annum. In addition, a tax on tourism and corrective taxes on other uses of ocean space, such as energy tax, are desirable for sustainable development in the oceans.
22. The entry into force and the effective implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea are essential for the orderly, sustainable development of ocean space and resources and the progressive development of the law of the sea.2 They will also contribute substantially to the UNCED process.
23. The Conference welcomed the joint initiative of President Mario Soares of Portugal and Professor Federico Mayor, the Director-General of UNESCO, to convene in 1992 with the support of the Portuguese Government a high level meeting to raise awareness and promote a strategy for partnership in ocean research, through building up national and regional capabilities in marine science, ocean services, and human resources, particularly in developing countries.