Cover Image
close this bookRegions at risk: Comparisons of Threatened Environments (UNU, 1995, 588 pages)
close this folder5. The Ukambani region of Kenya
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentThe Ukambani study area
View the documentThe history of settlement, land use, and environment (1890-1990)
View the documentThe trajectory of change in Ukambani
View the documentReferences

References

Ackello-Ogutu, C. 1991. Livestock production. In Environmental change and dryland management in Machakos District, Kenya, 1930-1990: Production profile, ed. Mary Tiffen. ODI Working Paper 55. London: Overseas Development Institute.

Adams, P. 1979. Deforestation in Kenya: A case of "over-exploitation" of the common property resource? M.A. thesis, University of Sussex, UK.

Altieri, Miguel A., and Laura C. Merrick. 1988. Agroecology and in situ conservation of native crop diversity in the Third World. In Biodiversity, ed. Edward O. Wilson, 361-369. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

Ambler, Charles H. 1988. Kenya communities in the age of imperialism: The central region in the late nineteenth century. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Anderson, David, and Richard H. Grove. 1987. Conservation in Africa: People, policies and practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Anyango, G., et al. 1989. Drought vulnerability in Central and Eastern Kenya. In Coping with drought in Kenya: National and local strategies, ed. Thomas E. Downing, Kangethe W. Gitu, and Crispin M. Kamau, 169-210. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Bahemuka, J., and Mary Tiffen. 1992. Akamba institutions and development, 19301900. In Environmental change and dryland management in Machakos District, Kenya, 1930-1990: Institutional profile, ed. Mary Tiffen, 3-51. ODI Working Paper, Draft. London: Overseas Development Institute.

Barber, R. G., D. B. Thomas, and T. R. Moore. 1981. Studies on soil erosion and runoff and proposed design procedures for terraces in the cultivated, semi-arid areas of Machakos District, Kenya. In Soil conservation: Problems and prospects (Proceedings of Conservation 80, the International Conference on Soil Conservation held at the National College of Agricultural Engineering, Silsoe, Bedford, UK, 21st-25th July, 1980), ed. Royston P. C. Morgan, 219-237. New York: Wiley.

Bames, Carolyn, Jean Ensminger, and Phil O'Keefe, eds. 1984. Wood, energy and households: Perspectives on rural Kenya. Stockholm: Beijer Institute; Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies.

Bates, R. 1987. The agrarian origins of Mau Maul Agricultural History 61: 1-28.

Bernard, F. E. 1985. Planning and environmental risk in Kenyan drylands. Geographical Review 75, no. 1: 58-70.

Bernard, F. E., and D. J. Thom. 1981. Population pressure and human carrying capacity in selected locations of Machakos and Kitui Districts. Journal of Developing Areas 15: 381-496.

Bernard, F. E., D. J. Campbell, and D. J. Thom. 1989. Carrying capacity of the eastern ecological gradient of Kenya. National Geographic Research 5, no. 4: 399-421.

Blaikie, Piers M., and Harold Brookfield. 1987. Land degradation and society. London: Methuen.

Borton, J. 1989. Overview of the 1984/85 National Drought Relief Program. In Coping with drought in Kenya: National and local strategies, ed. Thomas E. Downing, Kangethe W. Gitu, and Crispin M. Kamau, 24-64. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Boserup, Ester. 1965. The conditions of agricultural growth: The economics of agrarian change under population pressure. Chicago: Aldine.

Bradley, Phillip N. 1991. Woodfuel, women and woodlots. London: Macmillan.

Bradshaw, Y. W. 1990. Perpetuating underdevelopment in Kenya: The link between agriculture, class and state. African Studies Review 33, no. 1: 1-28.

Buck, L. 1981. Proceedings of the Kenya National Seminar on Agroforestry. Nairobi: International Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF).

Campbell, D. J. 1990. Community-based strategies for coping with food scarcity: A role in African early-warning systems. GeoJournal 20, no. 3: 231-242.

CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics). 1983. Third rural child nutrition survey 1982. Nairobi: CBS, Government of Kenya.

Champion, A. M. 1933. Soil erosion in Africa. Geographical Journal 82, no. 2: 130-138.

Collinson, Michael P. 1979. Research planning study, Data presentation: Parts of lower, drier areas of Northern Division, Machakos. Nairobi: CIMMYT/Medical Research Center.

Darkoh, M. B. K. 1989. Desertification in Africa. Journal of Eastern African Research and Development 19: 1-50.

Darnhofer, Till. 1985. Meteorological elements and their observation. Working Paper no. 14. Nairobi: International Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF).

Deacon, P. J., and M. B. K. Darkoh. 1987. The policies and practices behind the degradation of Kenya's land resources: Preliminary review. Journal of Eastern African Research and Development 17: 34-51.

Deloitte, Haskins, and Sells Management Consultants. 1985. Final report on the USAID/GOK food relief monitoring and evaluation. Nairobi: USAID/Kenya.

DeWees, P. A. 1989. The woodfuel crisis reconsidered: Observations on the dynamics of abundance and scarcity. World Development 17, no. 8: 1159-1172.

DeWilde, J. C. 1967. Experiences with agricultural development in tropical Africa. Vol. 2, The case studies. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Diang'a, Alex. 1991. Report on sand-scooping in Machakos District. Nairobi: African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS).

Downing, Jeanne, Leonard Berry, Lesley Downing, Thomas Downing, and Richard Ford. 1987. Drought and famine in Africa, 1981-1986: The U.S. response. 2 vols. Worcester, MA: Cooperative Agreement on Settlement and Resource Systems Analysis (SARSA), Clark University.

Downing, Thomas E. 1988. Climatic variability, food security and smallholder agriculturalists in six districts of Eastern and Central Kenya. Ph.D. dissertation, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, MA.

Downing, Thomas E. 1991. Vulnerability to hunger in Africa: A climate change perspective. Global Environmental Change 1, no. 5 (December): 365-380.

Downing, Thomas E., Kangethe W. Gitu, Crispin M. Kamau, and John Borton. 1989. Drought in Kenya. In Coping with drought in Kenya: National and local strategies, ed. Thomas E. Downing, Kangethe W. Gitu, and Crispin M. Kamau, 3-23. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Dregne, H. E. 1990. Erosion and soil productivity in Africa. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 45, no. 4: 431-436.

Dunne, T. 1979. Sediment yield and landuse in tropical catchments. Journal of Hydrology 42: 281-300.

Dunne, T., W. E. Dietrich, and M. J. Brunengo. 1978. Recent and past erosion rates in semi-arid Kenya. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie NF. Suppl. Bd. 29: 130-140.

EcoSystems Ltd. 1981. Survey of agriculture and land use, Machakos District, Kenya. Nairobi: Ecosystems Ltd.

EcoSystems Ltd. 1986. Baseline survey of Machakos District: 1985 and land use changes in Machakos District: 1981-1985. Report no. 4 for MIDP. Nairobi: EcoSystems Ltd.

Fliervoet, E. 1981. An inventory of trees and shrubs in the Northern Division of Machakos District, Kenya. Wageningen, the Netherlands: Wageningen Agricultural University; Nairobi: International Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF).

Fowler, Cary, and Pat Mooney. 1990. Shattering: Food, politics, and the loss of genetic diversity. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

Getahun, A. 1989. Agroforestry for development in Kenya. In Agroforestry development in Kenya. Proceedings of the Second Kenya National Seminar on Agroforestry held in Nairobi, Kenya, 7-16 November 1988, ed. A. M. Kilewe, K. M. Kealey, and K. K. Kebaara, 85-109. Nairobi: International Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF).

Gielen, Hans. 1982. Report on an agroforestry survey in three villages of Northern Machakos, Kenya. Nairobi: International Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF); Wageningen, the Netherlands: Wageningen Agricultural University.

Grandin, Barbara E., Peter N. de Leeuw, and P. Lembuya. 1989. Drought, resource distribution and mobility in two Maasai group ranches, Southeastern Kajiado District. In Coping with drought in Kenya: National and local strategies, ed. Thomas E. Downing, Kangathe W. Gitu, and Crispin M. Kamau, 245-263. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Gupta, D. 1973. A brief economic history of the Akamba, with particular reference to labour supplies. Journal of Eastern African Research and Development 3, no. 1: 65-74.

Hall, D. 1938. Soil erosion: The growth of the desert in Africa and elsewhere. Nature 141: 394-397.

Hardinge, A. [c.1899] 1971. Report on the British East Africa Protectorate for the year 1897-98. In British Parliamentary Papers. (Vol. 69: Reports and correspondence on British Protectorates in East and Central Africa, 1890-1899), 397-427. Shannon: Irish University Press.

Harroy, Jean-Paul. 1949. Afrique, terre qui meurt: La degradation des sols africains sous l'influence de la colonisation. 2nd edn. Brussels: Marcel Hayez.

Hill, Martin J. D. 1991. The Harambee movement in Kenya: Self-help, development and education among the Kamba of Kitui District. London: Athlone.

Hobley, Charles W. [1910] 1971. Ethnology of A-Kamba and other East African tribes. Reprint of 1st edn. (Cambridge University). London: Frank Cass.

Hoekstra, Dirk A. 1984. Agroforestry systems for the semi-arid areas of Machakos District, Kenya. Working Paper no. 19. Nairobi: International Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF).

Hoekstra, Dirk A., and F. M. Kuguru. 1983. Agroforestry systems for small-scale farmers: Proceedings of a workshop held in Nairobi in September 1982. Nairobi: International Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF).

Hunt, Diana. 1984. The impending crisis in Kenya: The case for land reform. Aldershot, UK: Gower.

IFPP. 1991. Indigenous Food Plants Program Newsletter. Kenya Freedom from Hunger, National Museums of Kenya and Worldview International.

Jacks, Graham V., and Robert O. Whyte. 1939. Vanishing lands: A world survey of soil erosion. New York: Doubleday, Doran and Company.

Jaetzold, Ralph, and Helmut Schmidt. 1983. Farm management handbook of Kenya. 4 vols. Nairobi: Kenya Ministry of Agriculture.

Jama, M., L. Malaret, D. Rocheleau, and I. Jondiko. 1992. Farmer/researcher collaborative approach to rural development: Final project report. Nairobi: IDRC.

Johnston, B. F. 1989. The political economy of agricultural development in Kenya and Tanzania. Food Research Institute Studies 21, no. 3: 205-264.

Juma, Calestous. 1989a. Biological diversity and innovation: Conserving and utilizing genetic resources in Kenya. Nairobi: African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS).

Juma, Calestous. 1989b. The gene hunters: Biotechnology and the scramble for seeds. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Kamau, Crispin M. 1989. Case studies of drought impacts and responses in Central and Eastern Kenya. In Coping with drought in Kenya: National and local strategies, ed. Thomas E. Downing, Kangethe W. Gitu, and Crispin M. Kamau, 211-230. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Kates, Robert W., Robert S. Chen, Thomas E. Downing, Jeanne X. Kasperson, Ellen Messer, and Sara R. Millman. 1988. The hunger report: 1988. Providence, RI: Alan Shawn Feinstein World Hunger Program, Brown University.

KENGO. 1985. Kitui District energy profile and workshop. Nairobi: Kenya Energy and Environment Organization.

KENGO. 1989a. Seeds and genetic resources in Kenya. Nairobi: Kenya Energy and Environment Organization.

KENGO. 1989b. Survey of trees and seeds in Kenya's semi arid lands. Draft manuscript.

Krapf, Johann L. [1860] 1968. Travels, researches, and missionary labors during an eighteen years' residence in Eastern Africa. Reprint of 1860 edn. (London: Trübner). London: Frank Cass.

Lagemann, Johannes. 1977. Traditional African farming systems in eastern Nigeria. Afrika-Studien v. 98. Munich: Weltforum Verlag.

Lal, R. 1976. Soil erosion problems on an alfisol in western Nigeria and their control. IITA Monograph no. 1. Ibadan: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA).

Lambert, H. E. 1947a. Land tenure among the Akamba (Part I). African Studies (Johannesburg) 6, no. 3: 131-147.

Lambert, H. E. 1947b. Land tenure among the Akamba (Part II). African Studies (Johannesburg) 6, no. 4: 157-175.

Lelo, Francis. 1994. Human dimensions in wildlife management: A case study of Ol Donyo Sabuk National Park, Kenya. Ph.D. dissertation proposal, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, MA.

Lezberg, Sharon. 1988. Political ecology and resource management: An examination of response to soil erosion in Machakos District, Kenya. M.A. thesis, Clark University, Worcester, MA.

Lindblom, Gerhard. [1920] 1969. The Akamba in British East Africa: An ethnological monograph. 2nd edn. New York: Negro University Press.

Louis Berger, Inc. 1985. Planning and design for soil and water conservation in Kitui District. Nairobi: Ministry of Finance and Planning.

Lusigi, W. 1981. New approaches to wildlife conservation in Kenya. Ambio 10, no. 2-3: 87-92.

McCracken, J. 1982. Experts and expertise in colonial Malawi. African Affairs 81, no. 322: 110-114.

Malaret, Luis. 1991. Biodiversity, rural landscape pattern and land use change in a semi-arid farming community. Planning grant proposal funded by National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

Matheson, J. K., and E. W. Bovill, eds. 1950. East African agriculture: A short survey of the agriculture of Kenya, Uganda, Tanganyika, and Zanzibar, and of its principal products. New York: Oxford University Press.

Mbithi, Philip, and Carolyn Barnes. 1975. The spontaneous settlement problem in Kenya. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau.

Mbithi, Philip M., and Rasmus Rasmusson. 1977. Self-reliance in Kenya: The case of Harambee. Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies.

Mbithi, Philip M., and Ben Wisner.1973. Drought and famine in Kenya: Magnitude and attempted solutions. Journal of East African Research and Development 3: 95-143.

Mbogoh, S. G. 1991. Crop production. In Environmental change and dryland management in Machakos District, Kenya, 1930-1990: Production profile, ed. Mary Tiffen, 1-44. ODI Working Paper 55. London: Overseas Development Institute.

Migot-Adholla, S. E. 1984. Rural development policy and equality. In Politics and public policy in Kenya and Tanzania, ed. Joel D. Barkhan, 199-232. New York: Praeger.

Moore, T. R. 1979a. Land use and erosion in the Machakos Hills. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 69, no. 3: 419-431.

Moore, T. R. 1979b. Rainfall erosivity in East Africa. Geografiska Annaler 61A, no. 3-4 (Physical Geography): 147-156.

Morgan, W. T. W. 1963. The "White Highlands" of Kenya. Geographical Journal 129: 140-155.

Mortimore, Michael. 1991. Environmental change and dryland management in Machakos District, Kenya, 1930-1990: Environmental profile. ODI Working Paper 53. London: Overseas Development Institute.

Mortimore, Michael. 1992. Environmental change and dryland management in Machakos District, Kenya, 1930-1990: Forestry profile. ODI Working Paper 63. London: Overseas Development Institute.

Moseley, P. 1983. The settler economies: Studies in the economic history of Kenya and Southern Rhodesia, 1900-1963. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mung'ala, P. M., and K. Openshaw. 1984. Estimation of present and future demand for woodfuel in Machakos District. In Wood, energy and households: Perspectives on rural Kenya, ed. Carolyn Barnes, Jean Ensminger, and Phil O'Keefe, 102-123. Stockholm: Beijer Institute.

Munro, J. Forbes. 1975. Colonial rule and the Kamba: Social change in the Kenya highlands, 1889-1939. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Muthiani, Joseph. 1973. Akamba from within: Egalitarianism in social relations. New York: Exposition Press.

Mutiso, Gideon-Cyrus M. 1975. Kenya: Politics, policy and society. Kampala: East African Literature Bureau.

Mutiso, Gideon-Cyrus M. 1977. Kitui the ecosystem, integration, and change: An overall approach. IDS Working Paper no. 303. Nairobi: Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi.

Muzaale, P., and D. K. Leonard. 1985. Women's groups in agricultural extension and nutrition in Africa: Kenya's case. Agricultural Administration 19, no. 1: 13-25.

Mwaria, Cheryl B. 1985. The changing conditions of social production and reproduction among the Kitui Akamba, 1800-1976. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, New York.

Myers, Norman. 1982. Forest refuges and conservation in Africa with some appraisal of survival prospects for tropical moist forests throughout the biome. In Biological diversification in the tropics: Proceedings of the fifth annual symposium of the Association for Tropical Biology, held at Macuto Beach, Caracas, Venezuela, February 8-13, 1979, ed. Ghillean T. Prance, 658-672. New York: Columbia University Press.

Myrick, B. 1975. Colonial initiatives and Kamba reaction in Machakos District: The destocking issue, 1930-1938. In Three aspects of crisis in colonial Kenya, ed. Bismark Myrick, David L. Easterbrook, and Jack R. Roelker. Foreign and Comparative Studies, Eastern Africa, 21. 1-26. Syracuse, NY: Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University.

Ndegwa, Philip. 1989. Drought and food policy in the African context. In Coping with drought in Kenya: National and local strategies, ed. Thomas E. Downing, Kangethe W. Gitu, and Crispin Kamau, 369-378. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Neumann, C. G., N. O. Bwibo, E. Carter, S. Weinberg, A. A. Jensen, D. Cattle, D. Ngare, M. Baksh, M. Paolisso, and A. H. Coulson. 1989. Impact of the 1984 drought on food intake, nutritional status, and household response in Embu district. In Coping with drought in Kenya: National and local strategies, ed. Thomas E. Downing, Kangethe W. Gitu, and Crispin Kamau, 231-244. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Ojany, Francis, and Reuben B. Ogendo. 1973. Kenya: A study in physical and human geography. Nairobi: Longman.

O'Keefe, Phil, Paul Raskin, and Steve Bernow, eds. 1984. Energy and development in Kenya: Opportunities and constraints. Stockholm: Beijer Institute; Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies.

Okoth-Ogendo, H. W. O. 1976. African land tenure reform. In Agricultural development in Kenya: An economic assessment, ed. Judith Heyer, J. K. Maitha, and W. M. Senga, 152-186. Nairobi: Oxford University Press.

Okoth-Ogendo, H. W. O. 1981. Land ownership and land distribution in Kenya's large-farm areas. In Papers on the Kenyan economy: Performance, problems, and policies, ed. Tony Killick, 329-338. Nairobi: Heinemann Educational Books.

Okoth-Ogendo, H. W. O. 1991. Tenants of the crown: Evolution of agrarian law and institutions in Kenya. ACTS Legal Studies Series no. 2. Nairobi: African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS).

Oldfield, Margery L., and Janis B. Alcorn, eds. 1991. Biodiversity: Culture, conservation, and ecodevelopment. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

O'Leary, M. 1980. Responses to drought in Kitui District, Kenya. Disasters 4: 315-327.

O'Leary, M. 1984. The Kitui Akamba: Economic and social change in semi-arid Kenya. Nairobi: Heinemann Educational.

Oliver, S. C. 1965. Individuality, freedom of choice and cultural flexibility of the Kamba. American Anthropologist 67: 421-428.

Ominde, Simeon H. 1968. Land and population movements in Kenya. London: Heinemann Educational Books.

Ondiege, P. O. 1992. Local coping strategies in Machakos District, Kenya. In Development from within: Survival in rural Africa, ed. David R. F. Taylor and Fiona Mackenzie, 125-147. London: Routledge.

Ondiege, P. O. 1993. Population and employment levels and trends in Machakos and Kitui Districts. Nairobi: African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS), derived from Republic of Kenya 1989 Census, District and National Summaries.

Owako, F. N. 1971. Machakos land and population problems. In Studies in East African geography and development, ed. Simeon H. Ominde, 177-192. London: Heinemann Educational Books.

Penwill, D. J. 1951. Kamba customary law: Notes taken in the Machakos District of Kenya Colony. London: Macmillan.

Porter, Phil W. 1965. Environmental potentials and economic opportunities: A background for cultural adaptation. American Anthropologist 67, no. 2: 409-420.

Porter, Phil W. In prep. The Kamba. In Adaptation in ecological context: Studies of east African societies. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Poulsen, Gunnar. 1981. Malawi: The function of trees in small farmer production systems. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Raintree, J. B. 1984. A diagnostic approach to agroforestry design. In Strategies and designs for afforestation, reforestation, and tree planting: Proceedings of an international symposium on the occasion of 100 years of forestry education and research in the Netherlands, Wageningen, 19-23 September 1983, ed. K. F. Wiersum. Wageningen: PUDOC.

Raintree, J. B. 1987. The state of the art of agroforestry diagnosis and design. Agroforestry Systems 5: 229-250.

Republic of Kenya. 1979. Arid and semi-arid lands development in Kenya: The framework for implementation, programme planning, and evaluation. Nairobi: Prudential Printers Ltd.

Republic of Kenya. 1980. Kitui District development plan, 1979-1983. Nairobi: Ministry of Economic Planning and Development.

Richards, Paul. 1985. Indigenous agricultural revolution: Ecology and food production in West Africa. London: Hutchinson.

Rocheleau, Dianne E. 1984. An ecological analysis of soil and water conservation in hillslope farming systems: Plan Sierra, Dominican Republic. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Rocheleau, Dianne E. 1985. Criteria for re-appraisal and re-design: Intrahousehold and between household aspects of FSRE in three Kenyan agroforestry projects. ICRAF Work ing Paper no. 37. Nairobi: International Council for Research in Agroforestry
(ICRAF).

Rocheleau, Dianne E. 1992. Gender, ecology and agroforestry: Science and survival in Kathama. Ecogen Case Study Series. Worcester, MA: Clark University.

Rocheleau, Dianne E., and Annet van den Hoek. 1984. The application of ecosystems and landscape analysis in agroforestry diagnosis and design: A case study from Machakos District, Kenya. Working Paper no. 11. Nairobi: International Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF).

Rocheleau, Dianne E., et al. 1985. Women's use of off-farm lands: Implications for agroforestry research. Nairobi: International Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF).

Rocheleau, Dianne E., M. Baumer, and D. Depommier. 1985. Consultancy report and project proposals for SlDA/Kenya soil conservation programme. Nairobi: International Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF).

Rocheleau, Dianne E., Kamoji Wachira, Luis Malaret, and Bernard M. Wanjohi. 1989. Local knowledge for agroforestry and native plants. In Farmer first: Farmer innovation and agricultural research, ed. Arnold Pacey, Robert Chambers, and Lori A. Thrupp, 14-24. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.

Roe, Emery, and David B. Lewis. 1989. Report of the Cornell University Workshop on the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya. Ithaca, NY: Institute of African Development, Cornell University.

Ruthenberg, Hans. 1980. Farming systems in the tropics. 3rd edn. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Shipton, P. 1988. The Kenyan land tenure reform: Misunderstandings in the public creation of private property. In Land and society in contemporary Africa, ed. R. E. Downs and Stephen P. Reyna, 91-135. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England for University of New Hampshire.

Silberfein, Marilyn. 1984. Differential development in Machakos District, Kenya. In Life before the drought, ed. Earl Scott, 101-123. Boston, MA: Allen & Unwin.

Silberfein, Marilyn. 1989. Rural change in Machakos, Kenya: A historical geography perspective. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Sindiga, I. 1984. Land: Population problems in Kajiado and Narok, Kenya. African Studies Review 27: 23-39.

Spencer, I. 1980. Settler dominance, agricultural production and the Second World War in Kenya. Journal of African History 21, no. 4: 497-514.

Spencer, I. 1983. Pastoralism and colonial policy in Kenya, 1895-1929. In Imperialism, colonialism, and hunger: East and Central Africa, ed. Robert I. Rotberg, 113-140. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Stockdale, F. 1937. Soil erosion in the colonial empire. Empire Journal of Experimental Agriculture 5, no. 20: 281-297.

Swynnerton, R. J. M. 1955. A plan to intensify the development of African agriculture in Kenya. Nairobi: Government Printer.

Tate, H. R. 1904. Notes on the Kikuyu and Kamba tribes of British East Africa. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 34: 130-148.

Thomas, B. P. 1988. Household strategies for adaptation and change: Participation in Kenyan rural women's associations. Africa 58, no. 4: 401-422.

Thomas, D. B., and R. G. Barber. 1983. The control of soil and water losses in semiarid areas: some problems and possibilities. The Kenyan Geographer 5, no. 1&2: 72-79.

Thomas, D. B., R. G. Barber, and T. R. Moore. 1981. Terracing of cropland in low rainfall areas of Machakos District, Kenya. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 25: 57-63.

Thomas, D. B., et al. 1982. Review of soil and water conservation research in the semiarid areas of Eastern Kenya: Report of a consultancy carried out at the request of the Government of Kenya. FAO and USAID No. 30.

Tiffen, Mary. 1991a. Machakos longitudinal study (Draft). London: Overseas Development Institute.

Tiffen, Mary. 1991b. Environmental change and dryland management in Machakos District, Kenya, 1930-1990: Population profile. ODI Working Paper 54. London: Overseas Development Institute.

Tiffen, Mary. 1991c. Environmental change and dryland management in Machakos District, Kenya, 1930-1990: Production profile. ODI Working Paper 55. London: Overseas Development Institute.

Tiffen, Mary. 1992a. Environmental change and dryland management in Machakos District, Kenya, 1930-1990: Institutional profile. ODI Working Paper, Draft. London: Overseas Development Institute.

Tiffen, Mary. 1992b. Environmental change and dryland management in Machakos District, Kenya, 1930-1990: Farming and incomes systems. ODI Working Paper 59. London: Overseas Development Institute.

Tiffen, Mary, and Michael Mortimore. 1992. Environment, population growth and productivity in Kenya: A case study of Machakos district. Development Policy Review, 10: 359-387.

Tignor, R. L. 1971. Kamba political protest: The destocking controversy of 1938. International Journal of African Historical Studies 4, no. 2: 237-251.

Tignor, R. L. 1976. The colonial transformation of Kenya: The Kamba, Kikuyu, and Mausai from 1900 to 1939. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Turner, B. L., II, R. Q. Hanham, and A. V. Portararo. 1977. Population pressure and agricultural intensity. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 67: 384-396.

Van Buren, E. 1983. Patterns of woodfuel scarcity and commercialization: The case of Kenya. London: International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED).

Van Ginneken, J. K., and A. S. Muller. 1984. Maternal and child health in rural Kenya: An epidemiological study. London: Croom Helm.

Vonk, Remko B. 1983a. The effect of different mulch treatments on the growth of maize and beans in a mixed cropping system. M.Sc. thesis (Tropical Crop Science), Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Vonk, Remko B. 1983b. Report on a technology-generation and diagnostic exercise in the Kathama area. M.Sc. thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Wachira, Kamoji K. 1987. Women's use of off-farm and boundary lands: Agroforestry potentials: Final report. Nairobi: International Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF).

Walter, R. D. 1985. Ecology, migration and expansion in East Africa. African Affairs 84: 347-370.

Wamalwa, B. N. 1989. Indigenous knowledge and natural resources. In Gaining ground: Institutional innovations in land-use management in Kenya, ed. Amos Kiriro and Calestous Juma, 45-65. Nairobi: ACTS (African Centre for Technology Studies) Press.

Wangari, Esther. 1991. Effects of land registration on small-scale farming in Kenya: The case of Mbeere in Embu District. Ph.D. dissertation, New School for Social Research, New York.

Wasserman, Gary. 1976. Politics of decolonization: Kenya Europeans and the land issue, 1960-1965. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Weekly Review. 1984. Economy performed well despite drought. 21 December: 46-47.

Weekly Review. 1991a. Land questions. 24 May: 6-11.

Weekly Review. 1991b. The MPs and the land. 14 June: 9-10.

Weekly Review. 1991c. Maku: Too vocal on land grabbing. 21 June: 17.

Weekly Review. 1991d. Masongaleni deals nullified. 26 July: 16-17.

Wijngaarden, J. van. 1983. Patterns of fuel gathering and use. M.Sc. thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Wisner, Ben. 1977. Man-made famine in eastern Kenya: The interrelationship of environment and development. In Landuse and development, ed. Phil O'Keefe and Ben Wisner. African Environment Special Report 5, 194-215. London: International African Institute.

Wisner, Ben. 1985. Fuelscape process: Modelling socio-environmental stress with a matrix approach in Kenya. Paper presented to the International Conference on Management of Rural Resources, International Geographical Union Commission on Changing Rural Systems, The University of Guelph, Canada. 14-20 July 1985.

Wyckoff, J. B. 1989. Drought and food policy in Kenya. In Coping with drought in Kenya: National and local strategies, ed. Thomas E. Downing, Kangethe W. Gitu, and Crispin M. Kamau, 355-368. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Yeager, Rodger, and Norman N. Miller. 1986. Wildlife, wild death: Land use and survival in eastern Africa. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.